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Europa zwischen Globalisierung und Renationalisierung

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  • Aiginger, Karl

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Abstract

Der Widerstand gegen die Globalisierung in den Industriestaaten wächst, populistische Bewegungen in Europa und den USA gewinnen an Bedeutung wobei rechte, linke und wachstumskritische Bewegungen mit unterschiedlichen Motiven eine Renationalisierung der Politik unterstützen. Die ökonomische Theorie betont die Vorteile der Globalisierung, durch verstärkte Arbeitsteilung, bessere Nutzung der Ressourcen und raschere Dissemination von Wissen und Technologien. Sie betont aber auch dass es Verlierer des Prozesses gibt, wenn Ungleichheiten und Ungleichgewichte sich verschärfen und Globalisierung wirtschaftspolitisch begleitet werden muss. Dieser Artikel untersucht ob die Vorteile aber auch die Ungleichgewichte in der letzten Globalisierungsphase eingetreten. Er berichtet über die fehlende politischen Begleitung, die zunehmende Globalisierungskritik in den Industrieländern und die Forderung nach Renationalisierung der Politik. Die falsche Verherrlichung der Vergangenheit und egoistischen Reaktionen verschärfen allerdings die Probleme und gefährden die Wohlfahrt. Kriterien einer verantwortungsbewussten Globalisierung werden entwickelt. Globale Herausforderungen verlangen internationale Regeln, sie dürfen jedoch nicht in zentralistische Maßnahmen münden die als Fremdbestimmung empfunden werden. Europäische Ziele und Rahmenbedingungen sollen so gewählt werden, dass sie den nationalen Spielraum erweitern und Bottom-Up-Initiativen fördern. Dieser "Empowermentansatz" sollte in die strategische Neuausrichtung Europas einfließen und könnte den Beginn einer europäischen Globalisierungsstrategie darstellen, die Standards nach oben angleicht und die bisherigen Verlierer befähigt, an den Vorteilen der Globalisierung teilzuhaben.

Suggested Citation

  • Aiginger, Karl, 2017. "Europa zwischen Globalisierung und Renationalisierung," Department of Economics Working Paper Series 5682, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business.
  • Handle: RePEc:wiw:wus005:5682
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    Globalisierungsfolgen; wohlfahrtsorientiere Globalisierung; Empowermentstrategie;

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