The Promotion of Employment and Earning Opportunity of Women in Europe through Gender Mainstreaming. With Special Emphasis on Austria
The European Union has developed a complex strategy and policy coordination process to promote gender equality in all community policies through "gender mainstreaming". While every member country has to promote the policy objective of gender equality, the instruments implemented to that end may differ. Different institutional structures and gender roles in the society may result in different outcomes of the same policy measure. Therefore every country has to choose those instruments best fitted to achieve gender equality. This paper outlines the various positions of the individual member countries relative to gender relations, with a special emphasis on Austria. Overall, it is the state and public sector institutions which tend to take a lead in implementing affirmative action programmes, in the main positive discrimination of women (quota regulations, targets) and enforcement of antidiscrimination legislation. Affirmative action programmes in private industry are not a universal feature in all EU countries. While gender equality is pursued as a moral issue in its own right, it is also an instrument to combat the negative impact of ageing of the European populations on welfare budgets and economic growth.
|Date of creation:||21 May 2008|
|Date of revision:|
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- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2003.
"Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 106-144, January.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," NBER Working Papers 8200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
- Gudrun Biffl, 2007. "The Employment of Women in the European Union," WIFO Working Papers 297, WIFO.
- Gudrun Biffl, 2007. "The European Employment Strategy. A New Form of Governance of Labour Markets in the European Union," WIFO Working Papers 301, WIFO.
- Gudrun Biffl, 2002. "Labour Statistics – Towards Enlargement. Labour Market Flexibility: The Role of the Informal Sector in the Context of EU Enlargement and the Need for a Systematic Statistical Base," WIFO Working Papers 190, WIFO.
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