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The Employment of Women in the European Union

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  • Gudrun Biffl


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    The increasing employment of women in Europe is not only a result of economic restructuring, but also a consequence of changing family structures, changing expectations, changing wage determination mechanisms and increasing urbanisation. Many of the services which have been outsourced from the household sector to the market sector tend to remain almost exclusively a female employment domain. Thus, the areas of production that constitute the domain of female work in traditional societies remain the same in the developed industrial societies; only the degree of marketisation differs. The extent to which domestic work is outsourced depends upon the welfare model. Thus, it is a different set of taxes, transfer payments and public services in the various models which impacts on the relative efficiency and direct and indirect costs of goods and services which can be produced in the household or the market sector. Different institutional settings impact on the opportunity cost of domestic work and/or the shadow price of the domestic good or service, resulting in a divergence of the employment rate of women between the various models in the EU.

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    Paper provided by WIFO in its series WIFO Working Papers with number 297.

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    Length: 27 pages
    Date of creation: 06 Jul 2007
    Handle: RePEc:wfo:wpaper:y:2007:i:297
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    1. Gudrun Biffl, 2002. "Labour Statistics – Towards Enlargement. Labour Market Flexibility: The Role of the Informal Sector in the Context of EU Enlargement and the Need for a Systematic Statistical Base," WIFO Working Papers 190, WIFO.
    2. Freeman, Richard B & Schettkat, Ronald, 2001. " Marketization of Production and the US-Europe Employment Gap," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(0), pages 647-670, Special I.
    3. Andrea Bassanini & Stefano Scarpetta & Philip Hemmings, 2001. "Economic Growth: The Role of Policies and Institutions: Panel Data. Evidence from OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 283, OECD Publishing.
    4. Michael Bittman & George Matheson & Gabrielle Meagher, 1999. "The Changing Boundary between Home and Market: Australian Trends in Outsourcing Domestic Labour," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 13(2), pages 249-273, June.
    5. Andrea Brandolini & Anthony B. Atkinson, 2001. "Promise and Pitfalls in the Use of "Secondary" Data-Sets: Income Inequality in OECD Countries As a Case Study," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 771-799, September.
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