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Firm competitiveness and the European union emissions trading scheme

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  • Chan, Hei Sing
  • Li, Shanjun
  • Zhang, Fan

Abstract

The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is the first international cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide and the largest carbon pricing regime in the world. A significant concern over the Emissions Trading Scheme has been the potential impact on the competitiveness of industry. Using data on 5,873 firms in ten European countries during 2001-2009, this paper assesses the impact on three variables through which the effects on firm competitiveness may manifest -- unit material costs, employment and revenue. The analysis focuses on the three most heavily-emitting industries under the program -- power, cement, and iron and steel. Empirical results indicate that the Emissions Trading Scheme has had different impacts across these three sectors. Although no impacts are found on any of the three variables in the cement and iron and steel industries, a positive effect is found on both material costs and revenue in the power sector. The effect on material costs likely reflects fuel-switching to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, while that on revenue may be partly due to cost pass-through to consumers in a market that is less exposed to competition outside the Europen Union. Overall the findings do not substantiate concerns over carbon leakage, job loss or industry competitiveness during the study period.

Suggested Citation

  • Chan, Hei Sing & Li, Shanjun & Zhang, Fan, 2013. "Firm competitiveness and the European union emissions trading scheme," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6662, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6662
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:oup:renvpo:v:11:y:2017:i:2:p:183-206. is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:energy:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:223-233 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:spr:annopr:v:255:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10479-016-2246-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Francesco Bosello & Marinella Davide & Isabella Alloisio, 2016. "Economic Implications of EU Mitigation Policies: Domestic and International Effects," Working Papers 2016.34, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    5. Rammer, Christian & Gottschalk, Sandra & Peneder, Michael & Wörter, Martin & Stucki, Tobias & Arvanitis, Spyros, 2017. "Does energy policy hurt international competitiveness of firms? A comparative study for Germany, Switzerland and Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 154-180.
    6. Ralf Martin & Mirabelle Mu?ls & Laure B. de Preux & Ulrich J. Wagner, 2014. "Industry Compensation under Relocation Risk: A Firm-Level Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(8), pages 2482-2508, August.
    7. Bosello, Francesco & Davide, Marinella & Alloisio, Isabella, 2016. "Economic Implications of EU Mitigation Policies: Domestic and International Effects," EIA: Climate Change: Economic Impacts and Adaptation 234938, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    8. da Silva, Patricia Pereira & Moreno, Blanca & Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho, 2016. "Firm-specific impacts of CO2 prices on the stock market value of the Spanish power industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 492-501.
    9. Nicola De Vivo & Giovanni Marin, 2017. "How neutral is the choice of the allocation mechanism in cap-and-trade schemes? Evidence from the EU-ETS," SEEDS Working Papers 0417, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Aug 2017.
    10. Stefano F. Verde & Christoph Graf & Thijs Jong and Claudio Marcantonini, 2016. "Installation entries and exits in the EU ETS industrial sector," RSCAS Working Papers 2016/19, European University Institute.
    11. Larch, Mario & Wanner, Joschka, 2017. "Carbon tariffs: An analysis of the trade, welfare, and emission effects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 195-213.
    12. Martin, Ralf & Muûls, Mirabelle & de Preux, Laure B. & Wagner, Ulrich J., 2014. "On the empirical content of carbon leakage criteria in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 78-88.
    13. Jurate Jaraite-Ka~ukauske and Corrado Di Maria, 2016. "Did the EU ETS Make a Difference? An Empirical Assessment Using Lithuanian Firm-Level Data," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    14. Chang, Kai & Zhang, Chao & Chang, Hao, 2016. "Emissions reduction allocation and economic welfare estimation through interregional emissions trading in China: Evidence from efficiency and equity," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1125-1135.
    15. Germeshausen, Robert, 2018. "The European Union emissions trading scheme and fuel efficiency of fossil fuel power plants in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 18-007, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    16. aus dem Moore, Nils & Großkurth, Philipp & Themann, Michael, 2017. "Multinational corporations and the EU emissions trading system: Asset erosion and creeping deindustrialization?," Ruhr Economic Papers 719, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    17. repec:eee:jeeman:v:86:y:2017:i:c:p:277-294 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Meyer Andrew & Pac Grzegorz, 2015. "How Responsive Are EU Coal-Burning Plants to Changes in Energy Prices?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 15(3), pages 1481-1506, July.
    19. Zhou, Yishu & Huang, Ling, 2016. "Have U.S. power plants become less technically efficient? The impact of carbon emission regulation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 105-115.

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    Keywords

    Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases; Climate Change Economics; Energy Production and Transportation; E-Business; Environment and Energy Efficiency;

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