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Firm competitiveness and the European Union emissions trading scheme

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  • Chan, Hei Sing (Ron)
  • Li, Shanjun
  • Zhang, Fan

Abstract

The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is the first international cap-and-trade program for CO2 and the largest carbon pricing regime in the world. A principle concern over the Emissions Trading Scheme is the potential impact on the competitiveness of industry. Using a panel of 5873 firms in 10 European countries during 2001–2009, this paper seeks to assess the impact of the carbon regulation on three variables through which the effects on firm competitiveness may manifest—unit material costs, employment and revenue. Our analysis focuses on three most polluting industries covered under the program-power, cement, and iron and steel. Empirical results indicate that the emissions trading program had different impacts across these three sectors. While no impacts are found on any of the three variables in cement and iron and steel industries, our analysis suggests a positive effect on both material costs and revenue in the power sector: the effect on material costs likely reflects the costs to comply with emissions constraints or other parallel renewable incentive programs while that on revenue may partly due to cost pass-through to consumers in a market less exposed to competition outside EU. Overall our findings do not substantiate concerns over carbon leakage, job loss and industry competitiveness at least during the study period.

Suggested Citation

  • Chan, Hei Sing (Ron) & Li, Shanjun & Zhang, Fan, 2013. "Firm competitiveness and the European Union emissions trading scheme," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1056-1064.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:63:y:2013:i:c:p:1056-1064
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.09.032
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Stefano F. Verde & Christoph Graf & Thijs Jong and Claudio Marcantonini, 2016. "Installation entries and exits in the EU ETS industrial sector," RSCAS Working Papers 2016/19, European University Institute.
    2. repec:oup:renvpo:v:11:y:2017:i:2:p:183-206. is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:energy:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:223-233 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Ralf Martin & Mirabelle Mu?ls & Laure B. de Preux & Ulrich J. Wagner, 2014. "Industry Compensation under Relocation Risk: A Firm-Level Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(8), pages 2482-2508, August.
    5. Larch, Mario & Wanner, Joschka, 2017. "Carbon tariffs: An analysis of the trade, welfare, and emission effects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 195-213.
    6. Martin, Ralf & Muûls, Mirabelle & de Preux, Laure B. & Wagner, Ulrich J., 2014. "On the empirical content of carbon leakage criteria in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 78-88.
    7. repec:spr:annopr:v:255:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10479-016-2246-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:eee:enepol:v:109:y:2017:i:c:p:154-180 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Bosello, Francesco & Davide, Marinella & Alloisio, Isabella, 2016. "Economic Implications of EU Mitigation Policies: Domestic and International Effects," EIA: Climate Change: Economic Impacts and Adaptation 234938, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    10. Jurate Jaraite-Ka~ukauske and Corrado Di Maria, 2016. "Did the EU ETS Make a Difference? An Empirical Assessment Using Lithuanian Firm-Level Data," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    11. Rammer, Christian & Gottschalk, Sandra & Peneder, Michael & Wörter, Martin & Stucki, Tobias & Arvanitis, Spyros, 2017. "Does energy policy hurt international competitiveness of firms? A comparative study for Germany, Switzerland and Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 154-180.
    12. Chang, Kai & Zhang, Chao & Chang, Hao, 2016. "Emissions reduction allocation and economic welfare estimation through interregional emissions trading in China: Evidence from efficiency and equity," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1125-1135.
    13. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:4:p:1284-:d:142491 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Germeshausen, Robert, 2018. "The European Union emissions trading scheme and fuel efficiency of fossil fuel power plants in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 18-007, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    15. aus dem Moore, Nils & Großkurth, Philipp & Themann, Michael, 2017. "Multinational corporations and the EU emissions trading system: Asset erosion and creeping deindustrialization?," Ruhr Economic Papers 719, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    16. repec:eee:jeeman:v:86:y:2017:i:c:p:277-294 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. da Silva, Patricia Pereira & Moreno, Blanca & Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho, 2016. "Firm-specific impacts of CO2 prices on the stock market value of the Spanish power industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 492-501.
    18. Meyer Andrew & Pac Grzegorz, 2015. "How Responsive Are EU Coal-Burning Plants to Changes in Energy Prices?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 15(3), pages 1481-1506, July.
    19. Nicola De Vivo & Giovanni Marin, 2017. "How neutral is the choice of the allocation mechanism in cap-and-trade schemes? Evidence from the EU-ETS," SEEDS Working Papers 0417, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Aug 2017.
    20. Zhou, Yishu & Huang, Ling, 2016. "Have U.S. power plants become less technically efficient? The impact of carbon emission regulation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 105-115.

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