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An analysis of physical and monetary losses of environmental health and natural resources in India

Author

Listed:
  • Mani, Muthukumara
  • Markandya, Anil
  • Sagar, Aarsi
  • Strukova, Elena

Abstract

This study provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; and (iii) indoor air pollution. It also provides estimates based on three natural resource damage categories: (i) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (ii) rangeland degradation; and (iii) deforestation. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The study estimates the total cost of environmental degradation in India at about 3.75 trillion rupees (US$80 billion) annually, equivalent to 5.7 percent of gross domestic product in 2009, which is the reference year for most of the damage estimates. Of this total, outdoor air pollution accounts for 1.1 trillion rupees, followed by the cost of indoor air pollution at 0.9 trillion rupees, croplands degradation cost at 0.7 trillion rupees, inadequate water supply and sanitation cost at around at 0.5 trillion rupees, pasture degradation cost at 0.4 trillion rupees, and forest degradation cost at 0.1 trillion rupees.

Suggested Citation

  • Mani, Muthukumara & Markandya, Anil & Sagar, Aarsi & Strukova, Elena, 2012. "An analysis of physical and monetary losses of environmental health and natural resources in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6219, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6219
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Min & Zhao, Jinhua & Bhattacharya, Joydeep, 2015. "Optimal health and environmental policies in a pollution-growth nexus," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 160-179.
    2. U.Sankar, 2015. "Public Economics and Sustainable Developments Policy," Working Papers 2015-107, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    3. K. S. Kavi Kumar & Lavanya Ravikanth Anneboina & Ramchandra Bhatta, 2016. "Valuation of Coastal and Marine Ecosystem Services in India: Macro Assessment," Working Papers id:11440, eSocialSciences.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Environmental Economics&Policies; Population Policies; Brown Issues and Health; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases;

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