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Equality of opportunity for children in Egypt, 2000-2009 : achievements and challenges


  • Velez, Carlos E.
  • Al-Shawarby, Sherine
  • El-Laithy, Heba


This paper provides relevant indicators and measurements useful for public policies seeking the expansion of equitable human development opportunities for Egyptian children and youth. To measure equitable access to opportunities, the authors use the Human Opportunity Index to examine the evolution of 16 basic opportunity indicators grouped in four sectors: education, basic housing services, early childhood development, and nutrition and hunger. The main findings show that during the last decade most opportunities for children and youth improved unambiguously,for the first two sectors, but were stagnant for nutrition and early childhood development opportunities. Although the urban-rural and interregional gaps were partially reduced, there are still substantial opportunity gaps between children in favorable and unfavorable circumstances. Parents'education, income per capita, urban-rural location, number of siblings, and regional location, are the five most important factors affecting equality of opportunity, although their impact varies across indicators.

Suggested Citation

  • Velez, Carlos E. & Al-Shawarby, Sherine & El-Laithy, Heba, 2012. "Equality of opportunity for children in Egypt, 2000-2009 : achievements and challenges," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6159, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6159

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stephen V. Cameron & James J. Heckman, 1998. "Life Cycle Schooling and Dynamic Selection Bias: Models and Evidence for Five Cohorts of American Males," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(2), pages 262-333, April.
    2. Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví & José R. Molinas & Ricardo Paes de Barros & Francisco H. G. Ferreira, 2009. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 361.
    3. Albers, Ronald & Peeters, Marga, 2011. "Food and energy prices, government subsidies and fiscal balances in south Mediterranean countries," MPRA Paper 28788, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Rocco, Lorenzo & Tanabe, Kimie & Suhrcke, Marc & Fumagalli, Elena, 2011. "Chronic diseases and labor market outcomes in Egypt," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5575, The World Bank.
    5. Carneiro, Pedro & Heckman, James J., 2003. "Human Capital Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Joao Pedro Azevedo & Samuel Franco & Eliana Rubiano & Alejandro Hoyos, 2010. "HOI: Stata module to compute Human Opportunity Index," Statistical Software Components S457191, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 05 Apr 2011.
    7. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement Of Inequality Of Opportunity: Theory And An Application To Latin America," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57(4), pages 622-657, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. AfDB AfDB, . "ORNA - North Africa - Annual Report 2014," Annual Report, African Development Bank, number 2139.
    2. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2016. "Energy Subsidy Reform in Egypt: The Gender – “Energy” Poverty Nexus," Working Papers 1055, Economic Research Forum, revised 10 2016.
    3. Lara Ibarra,Gabriel & Martinez Cruz,Adan L., 2015. "Exploring the sources of downward bias in measuring inequality of opportunity," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7458, The World Bank.
    4. Hafez Ghanem, 2014. "Governance Reform to Achieve Social Justice and Inclusive Growth in Egypt: Building Inclusive Economic Institutions," Working Papers 873, Economic Research Forum, revised Nov 2014.
    5. AfDB AfDB, . "The AfDB Group in North Africa 2014," Country Brochure, African Development Bank, number 2138.
    6. Ragui Assaad & Caroline Krafft & John Roemer & Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, 2016. "Inequality of Opportunity in Income and Consumption in Egypt," Working Papers 1002, Economic Research Forum, revised May 2016.

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    Population Policies; Primary Education; Early Child and Children's Health; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Regional Economic Development;

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