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Industrial organization implications of QR trade regimes : evidence and welfare costs

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  • Condon, Timothy
  • de Melo, Jaime

Abstract

Quantitative restrictions (QRs) are the most common form of protection in many developing countries. Often this type of protection emerges during balance of payments crises but, once in place, is not removed. Students of developing countries'foreign exchange regimes have long noted that QRs have deleterious effects beyond those that would emerge from calculations relying strictly on the"tariff equivalent"of quotas. So far most analysis has concentrated on quantifying the cost of rent-seeking activities which allegedly accompany QRs. The purpose of this paper is to extend this analysis by parametrizing two stylized observations that have often been noted about the manufacturing sector of QR-riddenforeign trade regimes: (a) unrealized economies of scale; and (2) lack of competition among domestic firms. The first arises because of the small size of the domestic market; the second arises because of the made-to-measure protection of QR trade regimes. This paper reviews evidence on linkages between firm behaviour, firm size and restrictiveness of the trade regime in semi-industrial developing countries and reports on simulations from a three sector model that explores the sensitivity of numerical estimates to the parameters describing foreign trade and firm behavior under increasing returns of scale.

Suggested Citation

  • Condon, Timothy & de Melo, Jaime, 1990. "Industrial organization implications of QR trade regimes : evidence and welfare costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 487, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:487
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Clarke, Roger & Davies, Stephen & Waterson, Michael, 1984. "The Profitability-Concentration Relation: Market Power or Efficiency?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(4), pages 435-450, June.
    2. Jaime de MELO & Shujiro URATA, 2015. "The Influence of Increased Foreign Competition on Industrial Concentration and Profitability," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 9, pages 219-236 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Cox, David & Harris, Richard, 1985. "Trade Liberalization and Industrial Organization: Some Estimates for Canada," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(1), pages 115-145, February.
    4. Jaime de Melo & David Roland-Holst, 2015. "Industrial Organization and Trade Liberalization: Evidence from Korea," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 18, pages 385-404 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Pro-competitive effects of trade reform : Results from a CGE model of Cameroon," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1157-1184, July.
    6. Julio J. Rotemberg & Garth Saloner, 1989. "Tariffs vs Quotas with Implicit Collusion," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 22(2), pages 237-244, May.
    7. Krueger, Anne O, 1974. "The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(3), pages 291-303, June.
    8. Horstmann, Ignatius J. & Markusen, James R., 1986. "Up the average cost curve: Inefficient entry and the new protectionism," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3-4), pages 225-247, May.
    9. Jere H. Behrman, 1976. "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Chile," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number behr76-1, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jaime de Melo & David Roland-Holst, 2015. "Industrial Organization and Trade Liberalization: Evidence from Korea," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 18, pages 385-404 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. De Melo, Jaime, 1988. "CGE models for the analysis of trade policy in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3, The World Bank.
    3. Mark J. Roberts & James R. Tybout, 1991. "Size Rationalization and Trade Exposure in Developing Countries," NBER Chapters,in: Empirical Studies of Commercial Policy, pages 169-200 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Dani Rodrik, 1988. "Closing the Technology Gap: Does Trade Liberalization Really Help?," NBER Working Papers 2654, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic Theory&Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT; Trade Policy; Access to Markets;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
    • F01 - International Economics - - General - - - Global Outlook
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations

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