IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/3176.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Pro-Competitive Effects of Trade Reform: Results from a CGE Model of Cameroon

Author

Listed:
  • Shantayanan Devarajan
  • Dani Rodrik

Abstract

How likely is trade liberalization to produce efficiency gains in the presence of imperfect competition, scale economies, and higher-than-average wages in the modern sectors -- all common features of developing economies? These features create a potential conflict to the extent that traditional notions of comparative advantage would lead us to expect that the modern sectors will be squeezed with liberalization. In this paper we investigate the issue by using an applied general equilibrium model calibrated to Cameroonian data. Under perfect competition, the traditional expectations are borne out: manufacturing sectors on the whole contract, and the cash crops sector (mainly coffee and cocoa) is the main beneficiary; the welfare effect is a wash since the beneficial consequence of expanded imports is offset by labor being pulled away from the modern, high-wage sectors. By contrast, under imperfect competition (in the modern sectors only), trade liberalization produces welfare gains of the order of 1 to 2 percent of real income. The key is the pro-competitive effect of liberalization: domestic firms now perceive themselves as facing a higher elasticity of demand, which spurs them to increase production. Therefore, the modern sectors do much better in terms of output than in the perfectly competitive benchmark. The introduction of scale economies amplifies these results. Under reasonable circumstances imperfect competition will make liberalization more desirable, even in the absence of firm entry and exit.

Suggested Citation

  • Shantayanan Devarajan & Dani Rodrik, 1989. "Pro-Competitive Effects of Trade Reform: Results from a CGE Model of Cameroon," NBER Working Papers 3176, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3176
    Note: ITI IFM
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w3176.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jaime de MELO & Shujiro URATA, 2015. "The Influence of Increased Foreign Competition on Industrial Concentration and Profitability," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 9, pages 219-236 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Harris, Richard, 1984. "Applied General Equilibrium Analysis of Small Open Economies with Scale Economies and Imperfect Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 1016-1032, December.
    3. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Rodrik, Dani, 1989. "Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries: Do Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies Matter?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 283-287, May.
    4. Don, H. & Gunasekera, B. H. & Tyers, Rod, 1990. "Imperfect competition and returns to scale in a newly industrialising economy : A general equilibrium analysis of Korean trade policy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 223-247, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3176. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: () or (Joanne Lustig). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.