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Promoting Women's Economic Participation in India

Author

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  • Ejaz Ghani
  • William Kerr
  • Stephen D. O'Connell

Abstract

Despite rapid economic growth, gender disparities in women’s economic participation have remained deep and persistent in India. What explains these gender disparities? Is it poor infrastructure, limited education, or the composition of the labor force and industries? Or is it deficiencies in social and business networks and a low share of incumbent female entrepreneurs? This note analyzes the spatial determinants of female entrepreneurship in India in the manufacturing and services sectors. It finds that good infrastructure and education predict higher female entry shares. Gender networks also influence women’s economic participation, as strong agglomeration economies exist in both manufacturing and services. A higher female ownership among incumbent businesses within a district-industry predicts a greater share of subsequent female entrepreneurs. Moreover, higher female ownership of local businesses in related industries (similar labor needs, input-output markets) predicts greater relative female entry rates.
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Suggested Citation

  • Ejaz Ghani & William Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, 2013. "Promoting Women's Economic Participation in India," World Bank Other Operational Studies 17013, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wboper:17013
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Philippe Aghion & Robin Burgess & Stephen J. Redding & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2008. "The Unequal Effects of Liberalization: Evidence from Dismantling the License Raj in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1397-1412, September.
    2. Ghani, Ejaz (ed.), 2010. "The Service Revolution in South Asia," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198065111.
    3. Ghani, Ejaz & Kharas, Homi, 2010. "The Service Revolution," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, issue 14, pages 1-5, May.
    4. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2012. "What explains big gender disparities in India ? local industrial structures and female entrepreneurship," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6228, The World Bank.
    5. Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2005. "Economic development and the decline of rural and urban community-based networks," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 13(3), pages 427-443, July.
    6. Timothy Besley & Robin Burgess, 2004. "Can Labor Regulation Hinder Economic Performance? Evidence from India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 91-134.
    7. Leora F. Klapper & Simon C. Parker, 2011. "Gender and the Business Environment for New Firm Creation," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 26(2), pages 237-257, August.
    8. Ejaz Ghani & William R. Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, 2013. "Local industrial structures and female entrepreneurship in India," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(6), pages 929-964, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dissanayake, Kumudinei, 2017. "Teleworking as a mode of working for women in Sri Lanka: Concept, challenges and prospects," IDE Discussion Papers 680, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    2. Ghani, Ejaz & Mani, Anandi & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "Can political empowerment help economic empowerment ? women leaders and female labor force participation in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6675, The World Bank.
    3. repec:eee:socmed:v:196:y:2018:i:c:p:197-203 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender - Gender and Development Transport Economics Policy and Planning Gender - Gender and Health Housing and Human Habitats Gender - Gender and Law Transport Communities and Human Settlements;

    JEL classification:

    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
    • D2 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations
    • D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
    • D7 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
    • H4 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods
    • I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers

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