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Cheap Talk with Outside Options


  • Saori Chiba

    () (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice)

  • Kaiwen Leong
  • Kaiwen Leong

    () (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University)


In Crawford and Sobel (1982) (CS), a sender (S) uses cheap talk to persuade a receiver (R) to select an action as profitable to S as possible. This paper shows that the presence of an outside option Ð that is, allowing R to avoid taking any action, yielding state-independent reservation utilities to R and S Ð has an important qualitative impact on the results. Contrary to CS, in this model, the informativeness of communication is not always decreasing in the level of conflict of interest. Relatedly, communication can be more informative than in CS.

Suggested Citation

  • Saori Chiba & Kaiwen Leong & Kaiwen Leong, 2013. "Cheap Talk with Outside Options," Working Papers 16, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
  • Handle: RePEc:vnm:wpdman:52

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bernard Caillaud & Jean Tirole, 2007. "Consensus Building: How to Persuade a Group," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(5), pages 1877-1900, December.
    2. Eric Maskin & Jean Tirole, 2004. "The Politician and the Judge: Accountability in Government," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 1034-1054, September.
    3. Augustin Landier & David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2009. "Optimal Dissent in Organizations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(2), pages 761-794.
    4. Farrell Joseph, 1993. "Meaning and Credibility in Cheap-Talk Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 514-531, October.
    5. Adam Brandenburger & Ben Polak, 1996. "When Managers Cover Their Posteriors: Making the Decisions the Market Wants to See," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 27(3), pages 523-541, Autumn.
    6. Steven A. Matthews, 1989. "Veto Threats: Rhetoric in a Bargaining Game," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(2), pages 347-369.
    7. Ying Chen & Navin Kartik & Joel Sobel, 2008. "Selecting Cheap-Talk Equilibria," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(1), pages 117-136, January.
    8. Wouter Dessein, 2002. "Authority and Communication in Organizations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(4), pages 811-838.
    9. Crawford, Vincent P & Sobel, Joel, 1982. "Strategic Information Transmission," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1431-1451, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


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    Cited by:

    1. Franck Bien & Thomas Lanzi, 2017. "Contracting for information: on the effects of the principal's outside option," Working Papers hal-01491912, HAL.
    2. Saori Chiba, 2014. "Extensions and Vagueness of Language under Two-Dimensional State Uncertainty," Working Papers 20, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
    3. repec:spr:jogath:v:46:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s00182-017-0571-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Shimizu, Takashi, 2013. "Cheap talk with an exit option: The case of discrete action space," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(3), pages 397-400.
    5. Takashi Shimizu, 2016. "Cheap Talk with an Exit Option: A Model of Exit and Voice," Discussion Papers 1607, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
    6. Saori Chiba & Kaiwen Leong, 2013. "Managerial Economics of Cheap Talk," Working Papers 24, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.

    More about this item


    Cheap Talk; Information Transmission; Experts;

    JEL classification:

    • D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
    • D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness

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