IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ulr/wpaper/dt-09-19.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Are not any silver in the cloud? Subjective well-being among deprived young people

Author

Listed:
  • Paula Carrasco

    (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a)

  • Rodrigo Ceni

    (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a)

  • Ivonne Perazzo

    (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a)

  • Gonzalo Salas

    (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a)

Abstract

Young people suffer higher levels of deprivation than older people, mainly in developing countries. They not only deal with social obstacles to getting a job or to staying in the education system, but they can also erect barriers which prevent them from achieving desirable trajectories in the future. We analyze the effect of a Social Intermediation Program (JeR) on Subjective Well-being and present how SWB is constructed and the different channels of its change. We develop a simple theoretical model to link subjective well- being with the individual and reference wealth, the efort and the level of aspirations, and how they can be affected by JeR. To overcome selection issues and to be able to identify causal effects, we estimate the model through instrumental variables using distance in meters between the individual house and the closest JeR center. We nd a negative impact of JeR on Subjective Well-being and the main channel of this change is through Subjective Relative Wealth, i.e., the relation between the individual and the reference wealth, but there is no effect through the other theoretical channels: the levels of effort or aspirations. These results are heterogeneous by psychological features; they are higher among those with low aspiration levels and external locus of control. We also find JeR has a positive effect on the dispersion of SWB, pushing down those on the left part of the distribution and maintaining SWR as the main channel. Finally, we disentangle the main program characteristics that might generate this effect giving relevant information for the policymakers.

Suggested Citation

  • Paula Carrasco & Rodrigo Ceni & Ivonne Perazzo & Gonzalo Salas, 2019. "Are not any silver in the cloud? Subjective well-being among deprived young people," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 19-09, Instituto de Economia - IECON.
  • Handle: RePEc:ulr:wpaper:dt-09-19
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.iecon.ccee.edu.uy/download.php?len=es&id=678&nbre=dt-09-19.pdf&ti=application/pdf&tc=Publicaciones
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. James J. Heckman & Sergio Urzua & Edward Vytlacil, 2006. "Understanding Instrumental Variables in Models with Essential Heterogeneity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(3), pages 389-432, August.
    2. Victor, Bart & Fischer, Edward F. & Cooil, Bruce & Vergara, Alfredo & Mukolo, Abraham & Blevins, Meridith, 2013. "Frustrated Freedom: The Effects of Agency and Wealth on Wellbeing in Rural Mozambique," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 30-41.
    3. Easterlin, Richard A, 2001. "Income and Happiness: Towards an Unified Theory," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(473), pages 465-484, July.
    4. Timothy Besley, 2017. "Aspirations and the political economy of inequality," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 1-35.
    5. Pedro Carneiro & Emanuela Galasso & Rita Ginja, 2019. "Tackling Social Exclusion: Evidence from Chile," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 129(617), pages 172-208.
    6. Patricio S. Dalton & Sayantan Ghosal & Anandi Mani, 2016. "Poverty and Aspirations Failure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(590), pages 165-188, February.
    7. Stutzer, Alois, 2004. "The role of income aspirations in individual happiness," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 89-109, May.
    8. Camacho, Adriana & Cunningham, Wendy & Rigolini, Jamele & Silva, Veronica, 2014. "Addressing access and behavioral constraints through social intermediation services : a review of Chile Solidario and Red Unidos," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7136, The World Bank.
    9. Marco Caliendo & Deborah A. Cobb-Clark & Arne Uhlendorff, 2015. "Locus of Control and Job Search Strategies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(1), pages 88-103, March.
    10. David Card & Alexandre Mas & Enrico Moretti & Emmanuel Saez, 2012. "Inequality at Work: The Effect of Peer Salaries on Job Satisfaction," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(6), pages 2981-3003, October.
    11. Dominique Goux & Marc Gurgand & Eric Maurin, 2017. "Adjusting Your Dreams? High School Plans and Dropout Behaviour," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 127(602), pages 1025-1046, June.
    12. Posner, Richard A, 1997. "Social Norms and the Law: An Economic Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 365-369, May.
    13. Karen Macours & Renos Vakis, 2014. "Changing Households' Investment Behaviour through Social Interactions with Local Leaders: Evidence from a Randomised Transfer Programme," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 0(576), pages 607-633, May.
    14. Lex Borghans & Angela Lee Duckworth & James J. Heckman & Bas ter Weel, 2008. "The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
    15. Erzo F. P. Luttmer, 2005. "Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(3), pages 963-1002.
    16. Deborah A. Cobb‐Clark & Stefanie Schurer, 2013. "Two Economists' Musings on the Stability of Locus of Control," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 0, pages 358-400, August.
    17. Bernard, Tanguy & Dercon, Stefan & Orkin, Kate & Taffesse, Alemayehu, 2014. "The Future in Mind: Aspirations and Forward-Looking Behaviour in Rural Ethiopia," CEPR Discussion Papers 10224, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Galiani, Sebastian & Gertler, Paul J. & Undurraga, Raimundo, 2021. "Aspiration adaptation in resource-constrained environments," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    19. Paul Fischer & Steven Huddart, 2008. "Optimal Contracting with Endogenous Social Norms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1459-1475, September.
    20. James J. Heckman & Jora Stixrud & Sergio Urzua, 2006. "The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities on Labor Market Outcomes and Social Behavior," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 411-482, July.
    21. Sebastian Galiani & Paul J Gertler & Raimundo Undurraga, 2018. "The Half-Life of Happiness: Hedonic Adaptation in the Subjective Well-Being of Poor Slum Dwellers to the Satisfaction of Basic Housing Needs," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 16(4), pages 1189-1233.
    22. Andrew D. McGee, 2015. "How the Perception of Control Influences Unemployed Job Search," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 68(1), pages 184-211, January.
    23. David Card & Pablo Ibarrarán & Ferdinando Regalia & David Rosas-Shady & Yuri Soares, 2011. "The Labor Market Impacts of Youth Training in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(2), pages 267-300.
    24. Janzen, Sarah A. & Magnan, Nicholas & Sharma, Sudhindra & Thompson, William M., 2017. "Aspirations failure and formation in rural Nepal," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 1-25.
    25. Laura Abramovsky & Orazio Attanasio & Kai Barron & Pedro Carneiro & George Stoye, 2016. "Challenges to Promoting Social Inclusion of the Extreme Poor: Evidence from a Large-Scale Experiment in Colombia," Economía Journal, The Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association - LACEA, vol. 0(Spring 20), pages 89-141, April.
    26. Laajaj, Rachid, 2017. "Endogenous time horizon and behavioral poverty trap: Theory and evidence from Mozambique," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 187-208.
    27. Karen Macours & Renos Vakis, 2014. "Changing Households' Investment Behaviour through Social Interactions with Local Leaders: Evidence from a Randomised Transfer Programme," Post-Print halshs-01313720, HAL.
    28. Gregg, Paul, 2001. "The Impact of Youth Unemployment on Adult Unemployment in the NCDS," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(475), pages 626-653, November.
    29. Francesco Bogliacino & Pietro Ortoleva, 2015. "The Behavior of Other as a Reference Point," Documentos de Trabajo - Escuela de Economía 013611, Universidad Nacional de Colombia -FCE - CID.
    30. Kristoffersen, Ingebjørg, 2018. "Great expectations: Education and subjective wellbeing," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 64-78.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Paula Carrasco & Rodrigo Ceni & Ivone Perazzo & Gonzalo Salas, 2021. "Are Not Any Silver Linings in the Cloud? Subjective Well-being Among Deprived Young People," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 491-516, February.
    2. Ross, Phillip H., 2019. "Occupation aspirations, education investment, and cognitive outcomes: Evidence from Indian adolescents," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 1-1.
    3. Dalton,Patricio S. & Ruschenpohler,Julius & Zia,Bilal Husnain, 2018. "Determinants and dynamics of business aspirations : evidence from small-scale entrepreneurs in an emerging market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8400, The World Bank.
    4. Galiani, Sebastian & Gertler, Paul J. & Undurraga, Raimundo, 2021. "Aspiration adaptation in resource-constrained environments," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    5. Ross, Phillip H. & Glewwe, Paul & Prudencio, Daniel & Wydick, Bruce, 2021. "Developing educational and vocational aspirations through international child sponsorship: Evidence from Kenya, Indonesia, and Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    6. Dalton, Patricio & Rüschenpöhler, Julius & Zia, Bilal, 2018. "Aspirations of Small-scale Entrepreneurs : Evidence from Urban Retailers in Indonesia," Other publications TiSEM bc573b53-32a8-497b-a67d-d, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    7. García, Sandra & Harker, Arturo & Cuartas, Jorge, 2019. "Building dreams: The short-term impacts of a conditional cash transfer program on aspirations for higher education," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 48-57.
    8. Janzen, Sarah A. & Magnan, Nicholas & Sharma, Sudhindra & Thompson, William M., 2017. "Aspirations failure and formation in rural Nepal," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 1-25.
    9. Schurer, Stefanie, 2017. "Bouncing back from health shocks: Locus of control and labor supply," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 1-20.
    10. Garcia, Adriana & Lensink, Robert & Voors, Maarten, 2020. "Does microcredit increase aspirational hope? Evidence from a group lending scheme in Sierra Leone," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    11. Raghunathan, Kalyani & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Kumar, Neha & Cunningham, Kenda, 2018. "Women’s aspirations for the future, and their financial, social and educational investments," IFPRI discussion papers 1752, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Pieter Serneels & Stefan Dercon, 2021. "Aspirations, Poverty, and Education. Evidence from India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 57(1), pages 163-183, January.
    13. Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr & Heckelei, Thomas & Baylis, Kathy, 2020. "Collective action and smallholder rural households: Implications for income and asset aspirations," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304580, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    14. Martin Paul Jr. Tabe-Ojong & Thomas Heckelei & Kathy Baylis, 2021. "Aspiration Formation and Ecological Shocks in Rural Kenya," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 33(4), pages 833-860, August.
    15. Warn N. Lekfuangfu & Reto Odermatt, 2020. "All I have to do is dream? The role of aspirations in intergenerational mobility and well-being," PIER Discussion Papers 142, Puey Ungphakorn Institute for Economic Research, revised Jul 2020.
    16. Justin Whetten & Matías Fontenla & Kira Villa, 2019. "Opportunities for higher education: the ten-year effects of conditional cash transfers on upper-secondary and tertiary enrollments," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 222-237, April.
    17. Kosec, Katrina & Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung, 2017. "Aspirations and the Role of Social Protection: Evidence from a Natural Disaster in Rural Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 49-66.
    18. Anandi Mani & Emma Riley, 2019. "Social networks, role models, peer effects, and aspirations," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2019-120, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    19. Salamanca, Nicolás & de Grip, Andries & Fouarge, Didier & Montizaan, Raymond, 2020. "Locus of control and investment in risky assets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 548-568.
    20. Katharina Jaik & Stefan C. Wolter, 2016. "Lost in Transition: The Influence of Locus of Control on Delaying Educational Decisions," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0118, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    social intermediation program; subjective well-being; aspiration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D60 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - General
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ulr:wpaper:dt-09-19. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ierauuy.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Andres Dean (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ierauuy.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.