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Choix d’activité des mères et garde des jeunes enfants : une comparaison entre les pays de l’Europe des Quinze à partir des données de l’ECHP

Author

Listed:
  • Sabine Chaupain-Guillot
  • Olivier Guillot
  • Eliane Jankeliowitch-Laval

Abstract

À partir des données de la vague 7 (2000) de l’European Community Household Panel (ECHP), cet article s’intéresse aux choix d’activité des mères en Europe et à leur décision, lorsqu’elles ont de jeunes enfants à charge, de recourir ou non aux services de garde. L’étude porte sur l’ensemble des États membres de l’UE-15. Après un bref survol des politiques de conciliation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle mises en oeuvre dans les pays européens et l’exposé de différents résultats descriptifs, les comportements des mères, dans chacun de ces pays, sont analysés à l’aide de deux modèles Logit polytomiques (non ordonnés). Le premier modèle se focalise sur la décision d’offre de travail (une distinction étant introduite entre activité à temps partiel et activité à temps complet). Dans le second modèle, on oppose les trois situations suivantes : (1) non-emploi ; (2) emploi et garde intra-ménage ou non rémunérée ; (3) emploi et garde rémunérée. Les résultats des estimations montrent que l’ampleur des effets des principaux facteurs pris en compte (taux de salaire, niveau de rémunération du conjoint, nombre d’enfants à charge et âge du plus jeune enfant) varie assez fortement selon les pays. S’agissant de l’impact de la présence d’un enfant de moins de 3 ans sur la probabilité d’emploi des mères, les différences observées semblent pouvoir s’expliquer en partie par les caractéristiques des dispositifs de conciliation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle.

Suggested Citation

  • Sabine Chaupain-Guillot & Olivier Guillot & Eliane Jankeliowitch-Laval, 2008. "Choix d’activité des mères et garde des jeunes enfants : une comparaison entre les pays de l’Europe des Quinze à partir des données de l’ECHP," Working Papers of BETA 2008-03, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
  • Handle: RePEc:ulp:sbbeta:2008-03
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jérôme De Henau & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2006. "The comparative effectiveness of public policies to fight motherhood-induced employment penalties and decreasing fertility in the former EU-15," DULBEA Working Papers 0026, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. Hausman, Jerry & McFadden, Daniel, 1984. "Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1219-1240, September.
    3. Francis Vella, 1998. "Estimating Models with Sample Selection Bias: A Survey," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 127-169.
    4. Ariza, Alfredo & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Ugidos Olazabal, Arantza, 2003. "The effect of flexibility in working hours on fertility: A comparative analysis of selected european countries," DFAEII Working Papers 2003-08, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
    5. Muehlberger, Ulrike, 2000. "Women's Labour Force Attachment in Europe: An Analytical Framework and Empirical Evidence for the Household," IRISS Working Paper Series 2000-07, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
    6. Small, Kenneth A & Hsiao, Cheng, 1985. "Multinomial Logit Specification Tests," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 26(3), pages 619-627, October.
    7. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    8. Daniela Del Boca & Silvia Pasqua, 2005. "Social Policies and Employment of Married Women in Europe," CHILD Working Papers wp19_05, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    9. Karen Mumford & Antonia Parera-Nicolau, "undated". "The Labor Force Participation of Married Mothers in Spain and Britain," Discussion Papers 01/10, Department of Economics, University of York.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    activité féminine; travail à temps partiel; garde des jeunes enfants; Union européenne.;

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

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