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Incidence and Returns to Apprenticeship Training in Canada: the Role of Family Background and Immigrant Status

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  • McDonald, James Ted
  • Worswick, Christopher

Abstract

Immigrant men and women in Canada from recent arrival cohorts have especially low rates of having an apprenticeship credential when compared to either their counterparts from earlier arrival cohorts or the Canadian born. Among the native born, a second generation man is more likely to have completed an apprenticeship if his father’s generation of immigrant men in Canada (from the same source country) have a high probability of apprenticeship completion. The same effect is present for first generation men who arrived in Canada as children. However, this effect is not found for either first generation or second generation women. An analysis of earnings indicates a strong wage return from the completion of an apprenticeship in Canada is found for men. However, women who have completed an apprenticeship in Canada actually have lower weekly earnings than women with only a high school diploma. The empirical results suggest that the increased emphasis on university education in the selection of economic immigrants is creating an imbalance between the supply of both first and second generation immigrants with an apprenticeship, and the demand for workers with these credentials.

Suggested Citation

  • McDonald, James Ted & Worswick, Christopher, 2011. "Incidence and Returns to Apprenticeship Training in Canada: the Role of Family Background and Immigrant Status," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2011-3, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 27 Jan 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:ubc:clssrn:clsrn_admin-2011-3
    as

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    File URL: http://www.clsrn.econ.ubc.ca/workingpapers/CLSRN%20Working%20Paper%20no.%2072%20-%20McDonald%20and%20Worswick.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sarit Cohen-Goldner & Zvi Eckstein, 2008. "Labor Mobility Of Immigrants: Training, Experience, Language, And Opportunities," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(3), pages 837-872, August.
    2. Abdurrahman Aydemir & Wen-Hao Chen & Miles Corak, 2009. "Intergenerational Earnings Mobility among the Children of Canadian Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(2), pages 377-397, May.
    3. repec:eme:rleczz:s0147-9121(07)00009-x is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Baker, Michael & Benjamin, Dwayne, 1994. "The Performance of Immigrants in the Canadian Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(3), pages 369-405, July.
    5. Abada, Teresa & Hou, Feng & Ram, Bali, 2008. "Group Differences in Educational Attainment Among the Children of Immigrants," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2008308e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    6. Yoko Yoshida & Michael R. Smith, 2005. "Training and the Earnings of Immigrant Males: Evidence from the "Canadian Workplace and Employee Survey"," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 86(s1), pages 1218-1241.
    7. James Ted McDonald & Christopher Worswick, 1998. "The Earnings of Immigrant Men in Canada: Job Tenure, Cohort, and Macroeconomic Conditions," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 465-482, April.
    8. Christopher Worswick, 2004. "Adaptation and inequality: children of immigrants in Canadian schools," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 37(1), pages 53-77, February.
    9. Andrew Sharpe & James Gibson, 2005. "The Apprenticeship System in Canada: Trends and Issues," CSLS Research Reports 2005-04, Centre for the Study of Living Standards.
    10. Charles M. Beach & Alan G. Green & Christopher Worswick, 2007. "Impacts of the Point System and Immigration Policy Levers on Skill Characteristics of Canadian Immigrants," Research in Labor Economics,in: Immigration, volume 27, pages 349-401 Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    11. Arthur Sweetman & Gordon Dicks, 1999. "Education and Ethnicity in Canada: An Intergenerational Perspective," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(4), pages 668-696.
    12. Derek Hum & Wayne Simpson, 2003. "Job-Related Training Activity by Immigrants to Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 29(4), pages 469-489, December.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Apprenticeships; Education; Immigration; and Second Generation;

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education

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