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Signalling in the Internet Craze of Initial Public Offerings

  • Cao Melanie
  • Shouyong Shi

In this paper we analyze the clustering phenomenon of underpricing in initial public offerings (IPOs), where firms in a particular industry choose to issue their new shares at the same time and at great discounts. The industry consists of many firms that have private in-formation about their own qualities (high or low) and that must raise external capital first before production. In the product market, firms compete through quality ladders, where each high-quality firm monopolizes the production of a particular variety of product. We show that self-fulfilling multiple equilibria arise. In one, no firm underprices the IPO. In the other, all high-quality firms underprice their IPOs, resulting in clustering. Moreover, the clustering is more likely to occur in economic upturns than in downturns, and in an easy credit market than in a tight market.

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File URL: http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/public/workingPapers/UT-ECIPA-SHOUYONG-02-03.pdf
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Paper provided by University of Toronto, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number shouyong-02-03.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: 11 Jul 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:tor:tecipa:shouyong-02-03
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  1. In-Koo Cho & David M. Kreps, 1997. "Signaling Games and Stable Equilibria," Levine's Working Paper Archive 896, David K. Levine.
  2. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  3. Randolph P. Beatty & Jay R. Ritter, . "Investment Banking, Reputation and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 02-85, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  4. Hoffmann-Burchardi, Ulrike, 2001. "Clustering of initial public offerings, information revelation and underpricing," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 353-383, February.
  5. Slovin, Myron B. & Young, John E., 1990. "Bank lending and initial public offerings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 729-740, October.
  6. Bikhchandani, Sushil & Hirshleifer, David & Welch, Ivo, 1992. "A Theory of Fads, Fashion, Custom, and Cultural Change in Informational Cascades," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 992-1026, October.
  7. Stoughton, Neal M & Wong, Kit Pong & Zechner, Josef, 2001. "IPOs and Product Quality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(3), pages 375-408, July.
  8. Grinblatt, Mark & Hwang, Chuan Yang, 1989. " Signalling and the Pricing of New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 393-420, June.
  9. Allen, Franklin & Faulhaber, Gerald R., 1989. "Signalling by underpricing in the IPO market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 303-323, August.
  10. Mauer, David C. & Senbet, Lemma W., 1992. "The Effect of the Secondary Market on the Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(01), pages 55-79, March.
  11. Diamond, Douglas W & Dybvig, Philip H, 1983. "Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 401-19, June.
  12. Welch, Ivo, 1989. " Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 421-49, June.
  13. Stavros Peristiani & Gijoon Hong, 2004. "Pre-IPO financial performance and aftermarket survival," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 10(Feb).
  14. Mark Grinblatt & Chuan Yang Hwang, . "Signalling and the Pricing of Unseasoned New Issues," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 01-89, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  15. Melanie Cao & Shouyong Shi, 1999. "Publicity and the Clustering of IPO Underpricing," Working Papers 990, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  16. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "Information Externalities and the Role of Underwriters in Primary Equity Markets," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 61-86, January.
  17. Tim Loughran & Jay R. Ritter, 2002. "Why Don't Issuers Get Upset About Leaving Money on the Table in IPOs?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 413-444, March.
  18. James, Christopher & Wier, Peggy, 1990. "Borrowing relationships, intermediation, and the cost of issuing public securities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 149-171.
  19. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
  20. Banerjee, Abhijit V, 1992. "A Simple Model of Herd Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(3), pages 797-817, August.
  21. Michaely, Roni & Shaw, Wayne H, 1994. "The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: Tests of Adverse-Selection and Signaling Theories," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(2), pages 279-319.
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