IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cir/cirwor/2001s-50.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings: Further Canadian Evidence

Author

Listed:
  • Maher Kooli
  • Jean-Marc Suret

Abstract

Evidence of underpricing of initial public offerings (IPOs) has spawned a considerable theoretical literature attempting to explain the apparent contradiction to market efficiency. This article reassesses that evidence by examining not just common shares Canadian IPOs, but also unit and Junior stock IPOs from the period 1991-1998. Our study shows that Canadian IPOs as major IPOs in the world are underpriced. However, the degree of underpricing depends on the type of the issue. Unit IPOs and Junior Capital Pool (JCP) IPOs are more underpriced than common shares IPOs. Our results also suggest that the IPO market in Canada is «good» only for large offerings. We have entertained a number of possible explanations for the high initial return of Canadian issuing firms. We find that the underpricing is significantly related to the size and the period of the issue and to whether the IPO is a JCP or not. On the other hand, the prestige of the underwriter is positively related to the underpricing but this relationship is not significant. La présente étude propose une analyse en profondeur du comportement des émissions initiales canadiennes de 1991 à 1998, en incluant les titres émis dans le cadre des programmes de Capital Pool. Les résultats montrent que la sous évaluation initiale persiste au Canada, en moyenne. Toutefois, le degrés de sous-évaluation est fortement lié au type d'émission: les émissions d'unités et celles qui se font dans le cadre des programmes de Capital Pool sont davantage sous évaluées que les émissions d'actions ordinaires hors Capital pool. Les émissions de taille moyenne et de grande taille semblent correctement évalués au Canada, contrairement à ce que l'on observe sur la plupart des marchés et notamment aux États-Unis. La sous-évaluation initiale concerne donc essentiellement les émissions de 20 millions de $ et moins, qui représentent toutefois 76,3 p. cent des émissions analysées. La sous-évaluation initiale reste donc un problème majeur pour les petites et moyennes entreprises canadiennes. Parmi les autres explications possibles à la sous-évaluation initiale, seule la période d'émission semble jouer un rôle significatif, en plus de la taille et de l'appartenance ou non au programme des Capital Pool.

Suggested Citation

  • Maher Kooli & Jean-Marc Suret, 2001. "The Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings: Further Canadian Evidence," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-50, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2001s-50
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2001s-50.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Reena Aggarwal, 2000. "Stabilization Activities by Underwriters after Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1075-1103, June.
    2. Tinic, Seha M, 1988. " Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(4), pages 789-822, September.
    3. Barber, Brad M. & Lyon, John D., 1996. "Detecting abnormal operating performance: The empirical power and specification of test statistics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 359-399, July.
    4. Beatty, Randolph P. & Ritter, Jay R., 1986. "Investment banking, reputation, and the underpricing of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 213-232.
    5. Titman, Sheridan & Trueman, Brett, 1986. "Information quality and the valuation of new issues," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 159-172, June.
    6. John D. Lyon & Brad M. Barber & Chih-Ling Tsai, 1999. "Improved Methods for Tests of Long-Run Abnormal Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(1), pages 165-201, February.
    7. Kothari, S. P. & Warner, Jerold B., 1997. "Measuring long-horizon security price performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 301-339, March.
    8. Brav, Alon & Gompers, Paul A, 1997. " Myth or Reality? The Long-Run Underperformance of Initial Public Offerings: Evidence from Venture and Nonventure Capital-Backed Companies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1791-1821, December.
    9. Mok, Henry M. K. & Hui, Y. V., 1998. "Underpricing and aftermarket performance of IPOs in Shanghai, China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 6(5), pages 453-474, November.
    10. Lerner, Joshua, 1994. "Venture capitalists and the decision to go public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 293-316, June.
    11. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R. & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1995. "Initial public offerings: International insights," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 139-140, May.
    12. Maksimovic, Vojislav & Unal, Haluk, 1993. " Issue Size Choice and "Underpricing" in Thrift Mutual-to-Stock Conversions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1659-1692, December.
    13. Marco Pagano & Fabio Panetta & and Luigi Zingales, 1998. "Why Do Companies Go Public? An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 27-64, February.
    14. Tim Loughran & Jay R. Ritter, 2002. "Why Don't Issuers Get Upset About Leaving Money on the Table in IPOs?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 413-444, March.
    15. Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F., 1996. "The financial performance of reverse leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 293-332, November.
    16. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
    17. Welch, Ivo, 1989. " Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 421-449, June.
    18. Paudyal, K. & Saadouni, B. & Briston, R. J., 1998. "Privatisation initial public offerings in Malaysia: Initial premium and long-term performance," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 6(5), pages 427-451, November.
    19. Michaely, Roni & Shaw, Wayne H, 1994. "The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: Tests of Adverse-Selection and Signaling Theories," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(2), pages 279-319.
    20. Stoughton, Neal M & Wong, Kit Pong & Zechner, Josef, 2001. "IPOs and Product Quality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(3), pages 375-408, July.
    21. Ivo Welch & Siew Hong Teoh & T.J. Wong, 1995. "Earnings Management and The Post-Issue Underperformance in Seasoned Equity Offerings," Finance 9-95., University of California at Los Angeles.
    22. Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan & Shah, Kshitij, 1997. "Ownership and operating performance of companies that go public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 281-307, June.
    23. Lee, Philip J. & Taylor, Stephen L. & Walter, Terry S., 1996. "Australian IPO pricing in the short and long run," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(7), pages 1189-1210, August.
    24. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R, 1995. " The New Issues Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 23-51, March.
    25. Ibbotson, Roger G & Jaffe, Jeffrey F, 1975. ""Hot Issue" Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1027-1042, September.
    26. Habib, Michel A & Ljungqvist, Alexander P, 2001. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 433-458.
    27. Alexander P. Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William J. Wilhelm, Jr., 2003. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 63-99.
    28. Allen, Franklin & Faulhaber, Gerald R., 1989. "Signalling by underpricing in the IPO market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 303-323, August.
    29. Christopher B. Barry & Robert H. Jennings, 1993. "The Opening Price Performance of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(1), Spring.
    30. Michelle Lowry & G. William Schwert, 2001. "Biases in the IPO Pricing Process," NBER Working Papers 8586, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    31. How, Janice C Y & Howe, John S, 2001. "Warrants in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(3), pages 433-457, July.
    32. Sherman, Ann E., 2005. "Global trends in IPO methods: Book building versus auctions with endogenous entry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 615-649, December.
    33. Kim, Moonchul & Ritter, Jay R., 1999. "Valuing IPOs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 409-437, September.
    34. Kim, Jeong-Bon & Krinsky, Itzhak & Lee, Jason, 1995. "The aftermarket performance of initial public offerings in Korea," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 429-448, December.
    35. Carter, Richard B & Manaster, Steven, 1990. " Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1045-1067, September.
    36. Melanie Cao & Shouyong Shi, 1999. "Publicity and the Clustering of IPO Underpricing," Working Papers 990, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    37. Ritter, Jay R., 1987. "The costs of going public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 269-281, December.
    38. Su, Dongwei & Fleisher, Belton M., 1999. "An empirical investigation of underpricing in Chinese IPOs," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 173-202, May.
    39. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R., 2000. "Uniformly least powerful tests of market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 361-389, March.
    40. Ritter, Jay R, 1991. " The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 3-27, March.
    41. Pagano, Marco & Panetta, Fabio & Zingales, Luigi, 1996. "The stock market as a source of capital: Some lessons from initial public offerings in Italy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1057-1069, April.
    42. Shiller, Robert J, 1981. "Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 421-436, June.
    43. Firth, Michael, 1997. "An analysis of the stock market performance of new issues in New Zealand," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 63-85, February.
    44. Dimson, Elroy, 1979. "Risk measurement when shares are subject to infrequent trading," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 197-226, June.
    45. Beatty, Randolph P & Welch, Ivo, 1996. "Issuer Expenses and Legal Liability in Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(2), pages 545-602, October.
    46. Roger G. Ibbotson & Jody L. Sindelar & Jay R Ritter, 1994. "The Market'S Problems With The Pricing Of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 7(1), pages 66-74.
    47. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "The winner's curse and international methods of allocating initial public offerings," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 15-30, May.
    48. Field, Laura C., 1995. "Is Institutional Investment in Initial Public Offerings Related to Long-Run Performance of These Firms?," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt1136n8ps, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    49. Barber, Brad M. & Lyon, John D., 1997. "Detecting long-run abnormal stock returns: The empirical power and specification of test statistics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 341-372, March.
    50. John Affleck-Graves & Shantaram Hegde & Robert E. Miller, 1996. "Conditional Price Trends in the Aftermarket for Initial Public Offerings," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(4), Winter.
    51. De Bondt, Werner F M & Thaler, Richard, 1985. " Does the Stock Market Overreact?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 793-805, July.
    52. Dewenter, Kathryn L & Malatesta, Paul H, 1997. " Public Offerings of State-Owned and Privately-Owned Enterprises: An International Comparison," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1659-1679, September.
    53. Ljungqvist, Alexander P., 1997. "Pricing initial public offerings: Further evidence from Germany," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(7), pages 1309-1320, July.
    54. Ibbotson, Roger G., 1975. "Price performance of common stock new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 235-272, September.
    55. Rajan, Raghuram & Servaes, Henri, 1997. " Analyst Following of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 507-529, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Initial public offerings; underpricing; Canada; Émissions initiales; sous évaluation; Canada;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2001s-50. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ciranca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.