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Biases in the IPO Pricing Process

  • Michelle Lowry
  • G. William Schwert

By investigating the entire IPO pricing process, beginning when the offering is filed, the paper contributes to the existing literature along four dimensions. First, price updates during the registration period are predictable based on firm and offer-specific characteristics known at the time the offer is filed. Second, price updates reflect market movements prior to the initial filing date as well as during the registration period. Third, positive and negative information learned during the registration period affect the offer price asymmetrically. Finally, public and private information learned during the registration period have different effects on the offer price. While a number of the biases that we uncover are consistent with one or more theories regarding IPOs, many remain a puzzle.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8586.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8586.

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Date of creation: Nov 2001
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Publication status: published as Schwert, G. William and Michelle Lowry. "Is the IPO Pricing Process Efficient?" Journal of Financial Economics 71 (January 2004): 3-26.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8586
Note: AP
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  1. Schwert, G.W. & Seguin, P.J., 1988. "Heteroskedasticity In Stock Returns," Papers bc_88-02, Rochester, Business - General.
  2. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  3. Lawrence M. Benveniste & Alexander Ljungqvist & William J. Wilhelm & Xiaoyun Yu, 2002. "Evidence of Information Spillovers in the Production of Investment Banking Services," OFRC Working Papers Series 2002fe06, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  4. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  5. Cornelli, Francesca & Goldreich, David, 2001. "Bookbuilding: How Informative is the Order Book?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2863, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
  7. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
  8. Baron, David P, 1982. " A Model of the Demand for Investment Banking Advising and Distribution Services for New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(4), pages 955-76, September.
  9. Habib, Michel A & Ljungqvist, Alexander P, 2001. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 433-58.
  10. William Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2001. "IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe08, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  11. Michelle Lowry & G. William Schwert, 2002. "IPO Market Cycles: Bubbles or Sequential Learning?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1171-1200, 06.
  12. French, Kenneth R. & Schwert, G. William & Stambaugh, Robert F., 1987. "Expected stock returns and volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 3-29, September.
  13. Roger G. Ibbotson & Jody L. Sindelar & Jay R Ritter, 1994. "The Market'S Problems With The Pricing Of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 7(1), pages 66-74.
  14. Bradley, Daniel J. & Jordan, Bradford D., 2002. "Partial Adjustment to Public Information and IPO Underpricing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(04), pages 595-616, December.
  15. Koh, Francis & Walter, Terry, 1989. "A direct test of Rock's model of the pricing of unseasoned issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 251-272, August.
  16. Megginson, William L & Weiss, Kathleen A, 1991. " Venture Capitalist Certification in Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 879-903, July.
  17. Chan, Louis K. C. & Lakonishok, Josef, 1992. "Robust Measurement of Beta Risk," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(02), pages 265-282, June.
  18. Clarkson, Peter M & Thompson, Rex, 1990. " Empirical Estimates of Beta When Investors Face Estimation Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 431-53, June.
  19. Ibbotson, Roger G., 1975. "Price performance of common stock new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 235-272, September.
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