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Biases in the IPO Pricing Process

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  • Michelle Lowry
  • G. William Schwert

Abstract

By investigating the entire IPO pricing process, beginning when the offering is filed, the paper contributes to the existing literature along four dimensions. First, price updates during the registration period are predictable based on firm and offer-specific characteristics known at the time the offer is filed. Second, price updates reflect market movements prior to the initial filing date as well as during the registration period. Third, positive and negative information learned during the registration period affect the offer price asymmetrically. Finally, public and private information learned during the registration period have different effects on the offer price. While a number of the biases that we uncover are consistent with one or more theories regarding IPOs, many remain a puzzle.

Suggested Citation

  • Michelle Lowry & G. William Schwert, 2001. "Biases in the IPO Pricing Process," NBER Working Papers 8586, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8586
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ljungqvist, Alexander P. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "IPO allocations: discriminatory or discretionary?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 167-201, August.
    2. Michelle Lowry & G. William Schwert, 2002. "IPO Market Cycles: Bubbles or Sequential Learning?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1171-1200, June.
    3. Cornelli, Francesca & Goldreich, David, 2001. "Bookbuilding: How Informative is the Order Book?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2863, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Roger G. Ibbotson & Jody L. Sindelar & Jay R Ritter, 1994. "The Market'S Problems With The Pricing Of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 7(1), pages 66-74.
    5. Bradley, Daniel J. & Jordan, Bradford D., 2002. "Partial Adjustment to Public Information and IPO Underpricing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(04), pages 595-616, December.
    6. Schwert, G William & Seguin, Paul J, 1990. " Heteroskedasticity in Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1129-1155, September.
    7. French, Kenneth R. & Schwert, G. William & Stambaugh, Robert F., 1987. "Expected stock returns and volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 3-29, September.
    8. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
    9. Koh, Francis & Walter, Terry, 1989. "A direct test of Rock's model of the pricing of unseasoned issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 251-272, August.
    10. Ljungqvist, Alexander P. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "IPO allocations: discriminatory or discretionary?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 167-201, August.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. L. Cassia & G. Giudici & S. Paleari & R. Redondi, 2004. "IPO underpricing in Italy," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 179-194.
    2. Aussenegg, Wolfgang & Pichler, Pegaret & Stomper, Alex, 2006. "IPO Pricing with Bookbuilding and a When-Issued Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(04), pages 829-862, December.
    3. Maher Kooli & Jean-Marc Suret, 2001. "The Aftermarket Performance of Initial Public Offerings in Canada," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-52, CIRANO.
    4. Lawrence M. Benveniste & Alexander Ljungqvist & William J. Wilhelm & Xiaoyun Yu, 2003. "Evidence of Information Spillovers in the Production of Investment Banking Services," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 577-608, April.
    5. Michelle Lowry & G. William Schwert, 2002. "IPO Market Cycles: Bubbles or Sequential Learning?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1171-1200, June.
    6. Amihud, Yakov & Hauser, Shmuel & Kirsh, Amir, 2003. "Allocations, adverse selection, and cascades in IPOs: Evidence from the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 137-158, April.
    7. Demers, Elizabeth & Lewellen, Katharina, 2003. "The marketing role of IPOs: evidence from internet stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 413-437, June.
    8. Cornelli, Francesca & Goldreich, David, 2001. "Bookbuilding: How Informative is the Order Book?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2863, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Maher Kooli & Jean-Marc Suret, 2001. "The Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings: Further Canadian Evidence," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-50, CIRANO.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage

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