IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/tky/fseres/2005cf379.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan

Author

Listed:
  • Tetsuji Okazaki

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

  • Michiru Sawada

    (Faculty of Economics, Nagoya Gakuin University)

  • Ke Wang

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

Abstract

This paper examines how the close ties between banks and non-banking firms-the so-called "organ bank" relationship in Japanese banking literature-declined through bank failures and banking consolidations in pre-war Japan. With a unique dataset compiled from 1,007 Japanese banks that were doing business between 1926 and 1936, we measure the degree of the "organ bank" relationship by the number of people who worked as directors or auditors for both a bank and a non-banking firm at the same time. We found that the number of "interlocking directors" declined in our sample period, when there were many bank failures and bank mergers and acquisitions. Furthermore, the remaining interlocked directors, after the wave of bank failures and consolidations, no longer demonstrated negative effects on the performance of the banks, as measured by their profitability. Our findings suggest, based on experience in Japan, that banking consolidations and selection through failure may help eliminate the detrimental connections between banks and non-banking firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Ke Wang, 2005. "The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-379, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  • Handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2005cf379
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cirje.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/research/dp/2005/2005cf379.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Chutatong Charumilind & Raja Kali & Yupana Wiwattanakantang, 2006. "Connected Lending: Thailand before the Financial Crisis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(1), pages 181-218, January.
    2. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Guillermo Zamarripa, 2003. "Related Lending," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(1), pages 231-268.
    3. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
    4. Berger, Allen N, 1995. "The Profit-Structure Relationship in Banking--Tests of Market-Power and Efficient-Structure Hypotheses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 404-431, May.
    5. Berger, Allen N. & Saunders, Anthony & Scalise, Joseph M. & Udell, Gregory F., 1998. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 187-229, November.
    6. Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru & Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 1082-1115, December.
    7. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2003. "Selection and Imitation in Institutional Evolution: Analysis of Institutional Change in Japan, 1960-1999," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-227, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    8. Smirlock, Michael, 1985. "Evidence on the (Non) Relationship between Concentration and Profitability in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 69-83, February.
    9. John Goddard & Phil Molyneux & John O. S. Wilson, 2004. "The profitability of european banks: a cross‐sectional and dynamic panel analysis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(3), pages 363-381, June.
    10. Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-1066, November.
    11. David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2000. "Why do Banks Disappear? The Determinants of U.S. Bank Failures and Acquisitions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 127-138, February.
    12. Laeven, Luc, 2001. "Insider Lending and Bank Ownership: The Case of Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 207-229, June.
    13. Takáts, Elöd, 2004. "Banking consolidation and small business lending," Working Paper Series 407, European Central Bank.
    14. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. "The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mathias Hoffmann & Tetsuji Okazaki & Toshihiro Okubo, 2019. "Branch Banking and Regional Financial Markets: Evidence from Prewar Japan," CIGS Working Paper Series 19-001E, The Canon Institute for Global Studies.
    2. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2004. "Effects of bank consolidation promotion policy: Evaluating the Bank Law in 1927 Japan," Discussion papers 04004, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    3. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2015. "Bank Behavior in Regional Finance and the Development of Regional Industries:The Case of Prewar Fukushima, Japan," CIGS Working Paper Series 15-001E, The Canon Institute for Global Studies.
    4. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2006. ""Effects of a bank consolidation promotion policy: Evaluating Bank Law in 1927 Japan" ;forthcoming in Financial History Review (Published in "Financial History Review", April 2007,," CARF F-Series CARF-F-058, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    5. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2015. "Bank Behavior in Regional Finance and the Development of Regional Industries: The Case of Prewar Fukushima, Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-972, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Ke Wang, 2005. "The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan (Published in "Corporate Ownership and Control" 4(4): 20-29,," CARF F-Series CARF-F-052, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    2. Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia & Gobbi, Giorgio, 2001. "The changing structure of local credit markets: Are small businesses special?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2209-2237, December.
    3. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    4. Engelberg, Joseph & Gao, Pengjie & Parsons, Christopher A., 2012. "Friends with money," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 169-188.
    5. Raphael Solomon, 2005. "Pocket Banks and Out-of-Pocket Losses: Links between Corruption and Contagion," Staff Working Papers 05-23, Bank of Canada.
    6. Carow, Kenneth A. & Kane, Edward J. & Narayanan, Rajesh P., 2006. "How Have Borrowers Fared in Banking Megamergers?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 821-836, April.
    7. Fabio Panetta & Fabiano Schivardi & Matthew Shum, 2009. "Do Mergers Improve Information? Evidence from the Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 673-709, June.
    8. Dheera-aumpon, Siwapong, 2019. "Collectivism and connected lending," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 258-270.
    9. Franklin Allen & James McAndrews & Philip Strahan, 2002. "E-Finance: An Introduction," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 22(1), pages 5-27, August.
    10. Pietro Alessandrini & Andrea Filippo Presbitero & Alberto Zazzaro, 2008. "Global Banking and Local Markets," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 4, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    11. Enrico Beretta & Silvia Del Prete, 2007. "Bank consolidation and lending policies to small business: Differences across geographical areas," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 644, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    12. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    13. Pankaj Sinha & Sakshi Sharma, 2016. "Determinants of bank profits and its persistence in Indian Banks: a study in a dynamic panel data framework," International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, Springer;The Society for Reliability, Engineering Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM),India, and Division of Operation and Maintenance, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden, vol. 7(1), pages 35-46, March.
    14. Barry, Thierno Amadou & Lepetit, Laetitia & Strobel, Frank, 2016. "Bank ownership structure, lending corruption and the regulatory environment," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 732-751.
    15. Degryse, H.A. & Cerqueiro, G.M. & Ongena, S., 2007. "Distance, Bank Organizational Structure and Credit," Other publications TiSEM 34c2f607-3395-4fd9-9c52-4, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    16. Ching-Chung Lin & Shou-Lin Yang & Huai-I Lee, 2015. "Bank Concentration and Enterprise Borrowing Cost Risk: Evidence from Asian Markets," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(2), pages 194-201, February.
    17. Iftekhar Hasan & Nada Kobeissi & Haizhi Wang & Mingming Zhou, 2015. "Banking Structure, Marketization, and Small Business Development: Regional Evidence From China," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 487-510, August.
    18. Hans Degryse & Nancy Masschelein & Janet Mitchell, 2011. "Staying, Dropping, or Switching: The Impacts of Bank Mergers on Small Firms," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(4), pages 1102-1140.
    19. Ayaydin, Hasan & Karaaslan, İbrahim, 2014. "Stock Market Development, Bank Concentration, Ownership Structure, and Bank Performance: Evidence from Turkey," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 49-67.
    20. Luca Colombo & Gilberto Turati, 2008. "The Role of the Local Business Environment in Banking Consolidation," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Economia e Finanza ief0076, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2005cf379. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CIRJE administrative office). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ritokjp.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.