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The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan

  • Tetsuji Okazaki

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

  • Michiru Sawada

    (Faculty of Economics, Nagoya Gakuin University)

  • Ke Wang

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

This paper examines how the close ties between banks and non-banking firms-the so-called "organ bank" relationship in Japanese banking literature-declined through bank failures and banking consolidations in pre-war Japan. With a unique dataset compiled from 1,007 Japanese banks that were doing business between 1926 and 1936, we measure the degree of the "organ bank" relationship by the number of people who worked as directors or auditors for both a bank and a non-banking firm at the same time. We found that the number of "interlocking directors" declined in our sample period, when there were many bank failures and bank mergers and acquisitions. Furthermore, the remaining interlocked directors, after the wave of bank failures and consolidations, no longer demonstrated negative effects on the performance of the banks, as measured by their profitability. Our findings suggest, based on experience in Japan, that banking consolidations and selection through failure may help eliminate the detrimental connections between banks and non-banking firms.

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File URL: http://www.cirje.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/research/dp/2005/2005cf379.pdf
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Paper provided by CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo in its series CIRJE F-Series with number CIRJE-F-379.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2005cf379
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  1. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2004. "Selection and Imitation in Institutional Evolution: Analysis of Institutional Change in Japan, 1960-1999," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-256, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  2. Tetsuji Okazaki & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2001. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Pre-war Japanese Banking Industry," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-138, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
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  8. Rafael Porta & Florencio de & Guillermo Zamarripa, 2002. "Related Lending," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm268, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2006.
  9. Chutatong Charumilind & Raja Kali & Yupana Wiwattanakantang, 2006. "Connected Lending: Thailand before the Financial Crisis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(1), pages 181-218, January.
  10. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1997. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: it's not just bank size that matters," Working Papers 97-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  11. Takáts, Elod, 2004. "Banking consolidation and small business lending," Working Paper Series 0407, European Central Bank.
  12. Laeven, Luc, 2001. "Insider Lending and Bank Ownership: The Case of Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 207-229, June.
  13. Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-66, November.
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