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Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Pre-war Japanese Banking Industry

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  • Tetsuji Okazaki

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

  • Kazuki Yokoyama

    (CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

Abstract

Economic historians have long accepted the view that in prewar Japan, many of the banks were closely connected with certain industrial companies, and those banks loosely gave loans to the connected companies. However, there has been no attempt to test this view quantitatively. In this paper, we measured the extent and implications of the director interlocking in the prewar banking industry, through compiling a comprehensive database of company directors and auditors in 1926. We found that interlocking of directors and auditors between banks and non-banking companies was very pervasive. Nearly 90% of ordinary banks had more than one directors or auditors who were at the same time directors or auditors of non-banking companies. Also, through regression analyses, we found that those banks with interlocking were less profitable and had riskier financial structures, and that interlocking increased the probability of bank closure and bank runs.

Suggested Citation

  • Tetsuji Okazaki & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2001. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Pre-war Japanese Banking Industry," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-138, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  • Handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2001cf138
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    File URL: http://www.cirje.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/research/dp/2001/2001cf138.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2000. "Role of Holding Companies in Prewar Japanese Economic Development: Rethinking Zaibatsu in Perspectives of Corporate Governance," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-74, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    2. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2001. ""Selection, Exits and Efficiency in the Japanese Banking Industry: An Historical Perspective" (in Japanese)," CIRJE J-Series CIRJE-J-63, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    3. Yabushita Shiro & Inoue Atsushi, 1993. "The Stability of the Japanese Banking System: A Historical Perspective," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 387-407, December.
    4. Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru & Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(04), pages 1082-1115, December.
    5. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2003. "Selection and Imitation in Institutional Evolution: Analysis of Institutional Change in Japan, 1960-1999," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-227, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    6. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap, 2004. "Corporate Financing and Governance in Japan: The Road to the Future," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262582481, March.
    7. Newey, Whitney K., 1987. "Efficient estimation of limited dependent variable models with endogenous explanatory variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 231-250, November.
    8. Bourke, Philip, 1989. "Concentration and other determinants of bank profitability in Europe, North America and Australia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 65-79, March.
    9. Tetsuji Okazaki & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2001. "Governance and Performance of Banks in Prewar Japan: Testing the "Organ Bank" Hypothesis Quantitatively," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-111, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jean-Pascal Bassino & Thomas Lagoarde-Segot, 2015. "Informational efficiency in the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 1931–40," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 68(4), pages 1226-1249, November.
    2. Sawada, Michiru, 2010. "Liquidity risk and bank portfolio management in a financial system without deposit insurance: Empirical evidence from prewar Japan," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 392-406, June.
    3. Yasushi Hamao & Takeo Hoshi & Tetsuji Okazaki, 2009. "Listing Policy and Development of the Tokyo Stock Exchange in the Pre-War Period," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 18, pages 51-87 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2012. "Interbank networks in prewar Japan: structure and implications," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 463-506, April.
    5. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Ke Wang, 2005. "The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan (Published in "Corporate Ownership and Control" 4(4): 20-29,," CARF F-Series CARF-F-052, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    6. Okazaki, Tetsuji, 2007. "Micro-aspects of monetary policy: Lender of Last Resort and selection of banks in pre-war Japan," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 657-679, October.
    7. Jean-Pascal Bassino & Thomas Lagoarde-Segot, 2013. "Trading patterns at the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 1931-1940," CEH Discussion Papers 012, Centre for Economic History, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    8. Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru & Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(04), pages 1082-1115, December.
    9. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2006. ""Effects of a bank consolidation promotion policy: Evaluating Bank Law in 1927 Japan" ;forthcoming in Financial History Review (Published in "Financial History Review", April 2007,," CARF F-Series CARF-F-058, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    10. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2006. "Effects of a bank consolidation promotion policy: Evaluating Bank Law in 1927 Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-400, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    11. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Pre-war Japanese Banking Industry ?Published in "Journal of Economic History", Dec2005, Vol. 65 Issue 4, p1082-1115, 34p," CARF F-Series CARF-F-039, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    12. Kiril Danailov Kossev, 2008. "The Banking Sector and the Great Depression in Bulgaria, 1924 - 1938: Interlocking and Financial Sector Profitability," Working Papers 76, Bank of Greece.
    13. Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2007. "Too Big to Fail: the Panic of 1927," MPRA Paper 2768, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Ke Wang, 2005. "The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-379, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    15. repec:eee:exehis:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:17-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Kasuya, Makoto, 2007. "Bond markets and banks in inter-war Japan," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6873, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    17. Makoto Kasuya, 2007. "Bond Markets and Banks in Inter-War Japan," STICERD - International Studies Paper Series 521, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.

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