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Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry

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  • OKAZAKI, TETSUJI
  • SAWADA, MICHIRU
  • YOKOYAMA, KAZUKI

Abstract

In prewar Japan, many banks were controlled by industrial companies through capital and personal relationships. The literature has pointed out that those banks engaged in unsound lending to their related companies, which resulted in damage to the financial system (organ bank hypothesis). In this article we examine this hypothesis by measuring director interlocking between banks and nonbanking companies. It was found that more than 80 percent of ordinary banks had director interlocking with at least one nonbanking company. Also, regression analyses confirmed that director interlocking had a negative effect on bank performance, especially for smaller banks.

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  • Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru & Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 1082-1115, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jechis:v:65:y:2005:i:04:p:1082-1115_00
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    1. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2000. "Role of Holding Companies in Prewar Japanese Economic Development: Rethinking Zaibatsu in Perspectives of Corporate Governance," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-74, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
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    5. Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru & Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 1082-1115, December.
    6. Tetsuji Okazaki & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2001. "Governance and Performance of Banks in Prewar Japan: Testing the "Organ Bank" Hypothesis Quantitatively," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-111, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    7. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2001. ""Selection, Exits and Efficiency in the Japanese Banking Industry: An Historical Perspective" (in Japanese)," CIRJE J-Series CIRJE-J-63, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    8. Yabushita Shiro & Inoue Atsushi, 1993. "The Stability of the Japanese Banking System: A Historical Perspective," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 387-407, December.
    9. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2003. "Selection and Imitation in Institutional Evolution: Analysis of Institutional Change in Japan, 1960-1999," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-227, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mathias Hoffmann & Tetsuji Okazaki & Toshihiro Okubo, 2019. "Branch Banking and Regional Financial Markets: Evidence from Prewar Japan," CIGS Working Paper Series 19-001E, The Canon Institute for Global Studies.
    2. Masami Imai & Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2019. "The Effects of Lender of Last Resort on Financial Intermediation during the Great Depression in Japan," Working Papers e129, Tokyo Center for Economic Research.
    3. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Pre-war Japanese Banking Industry ?Published in "Journal of Economic History", Dec2005, Vol. 65 Issue 4, p1082-1115, 34p," CARF F-Series CARF-F-039, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    4. Jean-Pascal Bassino & Thomas Lagoarde-Segot, 2015. "Informational efficiency in the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 1931–40," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 68(4), pages 1226-1249, November.
    5. Sawada, Michiru, 2010. "Liquidity risk and bank portfolio management in a financial system without deposit insurance: Empirical evidence from prewar Japan," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 392-406, June.
    6. Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru & Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2005. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 1082-1115, December.
    7. Tomihiro Machikita & Tetsuji Okazaki, 2019. "Transition to a Modern Regime and Change in PlantLifecycles: A Natural Experiment from Meiji Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1122, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    8. Okazaki, Tetsuji & Sawada, Michiru, 2017. "Measuring the extent and implications of corporate political connections in prewar Japan," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 17-35.
    9. Kasuya, Makoto, 2007. "Bond markets and banks in inter-war Japan," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6873, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Michiru Sawada & Tetsuji Okazaki, 2004. "Effects of Bank Consolidation Promotion Policy: Evaluating the Bank Law in 1927 Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-307, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    11. Kiril Danailov Kossev, 2008. "The Banking Sector and the Great Depression in Bulgaria, 1924 - 1938: Interlocking and Financial Sector Profitability," Working Papers 76, Bank of Greece.
    12. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2012. "Interbank networks in prewar Japan: structure and implications," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 463-506, April.
    13. Tomohiro Machikita & Tetsuji Okazaki, 2019. "Transition to a Modern Regime and Change in Plant Lifecycles: A Natural Experiment from Meiji Japan," CIGS Working Paper Series 19-006E, The Canon Institute for Global Studies.
    14. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada, 2006. ""Effects of a bank consolidation promotion policy: Evaluating Bank Law in 1927 Japan" ;forthcoming in Financial History Review (Published in "Financial History Review", April 2007,," CARF F-Series CARF-F-058, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    15. Yasushi Hamao & Takeo Hoshi & Tetsuji Okazaki, 2009. "Listing Policy and Development of the Tokyo Stock Exchange in the Pre-War Period," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, pages 51-87, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Okazaki, Tetsuji, 2007. "Micro-aspects of monetary policy: Lender of Last Resort and selection of banks in pre-war Japan," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 657-679, October.
    17. Jean-Pascal Bassino & Thomas Lagoarde-Segot, 2013. "Trading patterns at the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 1931-1940," CEH Discussion Papers 012, Centre for Economic History, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    18. Thomas Lagoarde-Segot & Jean Pascal Bassino, 2012. "Informational dynamics and cross market linkages in the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 1931-40," Working Papers 12017, Economic History Society.
    19. Braun, Matías & Briones, Ignacio & Islas, Gonzalo, 2019. "Interlocking directorates, access to credit, and business performance in Chile during early industrialization," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 381-388.
    20. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Ke Wang, 2005. "The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-379, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    21. Makoto Kasuya, 2007. "Bond Markets and Banks in Inter-War Japan," STICERD - International Studies Paper Series 521, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    22. Yokoyama, Kazuki, 2007. "Too Big to Fail: the Panic of 1927," MPRA Paper 2768, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    23. Tetsuji Okazaki & Toshihiro Okubo & Eric Strobl, 2020. "The Bright and Dark Side of Financial Support from Local and Central Banks after a Natural Disaster: Evidence from the Great Kanto Earthquake, 1923 Japan," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2020-001, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
    24. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Ke Wang, 2005. "The Fall of "Organ Bank" Relationships During the Wave of Bank Failures and Consolidations: Experience in Pre-war Japan (Published in "Corporate Ownership and Control" 4(4): 20-29,," CARF F-Series CARF-F-052, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.

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