IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Prewar Japanese Banking Industry

  • OKAZAKI, TETSUJI
  • SAWADA, MICHIRU
  • YOKOYAMA, KAZUKI

In prewar Japan, many banks were controlled by industrial companies through capital and personal relationships. Those banks are called "organ banks" (kikan ginko). Organ banks engaged in unsound lending to their related companies, which gave damage to the banks' financial conditions, and consequently made the financial system unstable. This is an accepted view on the financial history in prewar Japan (organ bank hypothesis). However, this view has been based on case studies and casual observations. In this paper we examine the organ bank hypothesis using quantitative data and econometric methodology. To measure the extent of connections between banks and non-banking companies, we compile a comprehensive database of directors and auditors of banks and non-banking companies in 1926. It is found that interlocking of directors and auditors between banks and non-banking companies were very pervasive. More than 80% of ordinary banks had at least one director or auditor who was at the same time a director or auditor of at least one non-banking company. Also, regression analyses confirm that director interlocking had a negative effect on bank performance, especially for small-sized banks.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0022050705000410
File Function: link to article abstract page
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Cambridge University Press in its journal The Journal of Economic History.

Volume (Year): 65 (2005)
Issue (Month): 04 (December)
Pages: 1082-1115

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:cup:jechis:v:65:y:2005:i:04:p:1082-1115_00
Contact details of provider: Postal: Cambridge University Press, UPH, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 8BS UK
Web page: http://journals.cambridge.org/jid_JEH
Email:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2004. "Selection and Imitation in Institutional Evolution: Analysis of Institutional Change in Japan, 1960-1999," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-256, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  2. Newey, Whitney K., 1987. "Efficient estimation of limited dependent variable models with endogenous explanatory variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 231-250, November.
  3. Tetsuji Okazaki & Michiru Sawada & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2003. "Measuring the Extent and Implications of Director Interlocking in the Pre-war Japanese Banking Industry," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-241, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  4. Bourke, Philip, 1989. "Concentration and other determinants of bank profitability in Europe, North America and Australia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 65-79, March.
  5. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2000. "Role of Holding Companies in Prewar Japanese Economic Development: Rethinking Zaibatsu in Perspectives of Corporate Governance," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-74, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  6. Yabushita Shiro & Inoue Atsushi, 1993. "The Stability of the Japanese Banking System: A Historical Perspective," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 387-407, December.
  7. Tetsuji Okazaki & Kazuki Yokoyama, 2001. "Governance and Performance of Banks in Prewar Japan: Testing the "Organ Bank" Hypothesis Quantitatively," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-111, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  8. Tetsuji Okazaki, 2001. ""Selection, Exits and Efficiency in the Japanese Banking Industry: An Historical Perspective" (in Japanese)," CIRJE J-Series CIRJE-J-63, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cup:jechis:v:65:y:2005:i:04:p:1082-1115_00. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Keith Waters)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.