Entry into work following childbirth among mothers in Norway. Recent trends and variation
Universal parental leaves with job protection and earnings compensation increase women's attachment to the labour market, but very long leaves may have negative consequences both at the individual and the societal level. Some scholars have therefore argued that generous family-friendly policies in the Nordic countries have been counterproductive in achieving one of the main goals, gender equality. In this paper we ask whether it is possible to offset the potential negative effects on women's labour supply of long parental leaves by policies targeted especially at the father, and policies making formal day care cheaper and more easily available for parents. Norway is an interesting case in this respect, since all recent extensions in the parental leave scheme have been reserved for fathers and at the same time there has been a vast expansion of the day-care sector combined with reduced parental payment. Using panel data from 1996-2010, we find that Norwegian mothers did indeed enter work faster after childbirth in the late 2000s than about a decade earlier. This suggests that the latest initiatives have contributed to a shortening of women's employment interruptions and a more equal division of paid and unpaid work among parents.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway|
Phone: (+47) 21 09 00 00
Fax: (+47) 21 09 49 73
Web page: http://www.ssb.no/en/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars J. Kirkebøen, 2011.
"Causal Effects of Paternity Leave on Children and Parents,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
3513, CESifo Group Munich.
- Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars J. Kirkebøen, 2015. "Causal Effects of Paternity Leave on Children and Parents," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 117(3), pages 801-828, 07.
- Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars Johannessen Kirkebøen, 2011. "Causal effects of paternity leave on children and parents," Discussion Papers 657, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
- Jacob Klerman & Arleen Leibowitz, 1999. "Job continuity among new mothers," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 36(2), pages 145-155, May.
- Pål Schøne, 2004. "Labour supply effects of a cash-for-care subsidy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 17(4), pages 703-727, December.
- Randi Kjeldstad & Marit Rønsen, 2004. "Welfare Rules, Business Cycles, And Employment Dynamics Among Lone Parents In Norway," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 61-89.
- Karsten Marshall Elseth Rieck & Kjetil Telle, 2012.
"Sick leave before, during and after pregnancy,"
690, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996.
"The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe,"
NBER Working Papers
5688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1998. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(1), pages 285-317.
- Simon Burgess & Paul Gregg & Carol Propper & Elizabeth Washbrook & ALSPAC Study Team, 2002.
"Maternity Rights and Mothers' Return to Work,"
The Centre for Market and Public Organisation
02/055, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Chiara Pronzato, 2009.
"Return to work after childbirth: does parental leave matter in Europe?,"
Review of Economics of the Household,
Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 341-360, December.
- Chiara Pronzato, 2008. "Return to work after childbirth: Does parental leave matter in Europe?," Working Papers 014, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
- Pronzato, Chiara, 2007. "Return to work after childbirth: does parental leave matter in Europe?," ISER Working Paper Series 2007-30, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974.
"Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S76-S108, Part II, .
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen & Mette Verner, 2004.
"Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?,"
Scandinavian Journal of Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(4), pages 721-744, December.
- Nielsen, Helena Skyt & Simonsen, Marianne & Verner, Mette, 2002. "Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?," Working Papers 02-19, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen & Mette Verner, . "Does the Gap in Family-Friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?," Economics Working Papers 2003-1, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
- Ejrnæs, Mette & Kunze, Astrid, 2011.
"Work and Wage Dynamics around Childbirth,"
IZA Discussion Papers
6066, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mette Ejrnæs & Astrid Kunze, 2012. "Work and Wage Dynamics around Childbirth," CESifo Working Paper Series 3710, CESifo Group Munich.
- Ejrnæs, Mette & Kunze, Astrid, 2012. "Work and Wage Dynamics around Childbirth," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 4/2012, Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics.
- Marit Rønsen, 2009. "Long-term Effects of Cash for Childcare on Mothers' Labour Supply," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 23(3), pages 507-533, 09.
- Pylkkänen, Elina & Smith, Nina, 2004.
"Career Interruptions due to Parental Leave - A Comparative Study of Denmark and Sweden,"
04-1, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Elina Pylkkänen & Nina Smith, 2003. "Career Interruptions Due to Parental Leave: A Comparative Study of Denmark and Sweden," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 1, OECD Publishing.
- Nina Drange & Kjetil Telle, 2010. "The effect of preschool on the school performance of children from immigrant families. Results from an introduction of free preschool in two districts in Oslo," Discussion Papers 631, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Even, William E, 1987. "Career Interruptions Following Childbirth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(2), pages 255-77, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:702. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (J Bruusgaard)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.