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Evolution of the Software-as-a-Service Innovation System Through Collective Intelligence

Author

Listed:
  • Kibae Kim

    () (College of Engineering, Seoul National University)

  • Jorn Altmann

    () (College of Engineering, Seoul National University)

Abstract

One of the notable trends in the software industry is that software vendors provide their software on a platform as a service. Software users consume those software services or compose new services by combining those existing software services. The software vendors, their services, software users, and the platform represent an open innovation system. Collective intelligence is the underlying mechanism for the cooperation between the users of the system, i.e. their continuous reuse of existing software services for the creation of new services. A successfully working software services system is a system that is continuously adapted by its users to meet their needs. The evolution of this software-as-a-service (SaaS) innovation system and the behavior of SaaS users within this system are still unknown. In this paper, we describe the evolution of a SaaS network. The SaaS network consists of nodes (i.e. software services with open interfaces) and links (i.e. the co-development relationships of software services with open interfaces). The results suggest that the SaaS network has gradually grown into a scale-free network with a slight concavity in its cumulative degree distribution. The results also suggest that the topology characteristics are invariant over time except for the early time periods. Furthermore, the results suggest that the SaaS network is not as open (i.e. inter-operable) as its technology let us expect. Considering these results, we imply that SaaS innovation is achieved by platform providers striving to capture users with a few, leading SaaS services. That means, SaaS innovation is not achieved through the possibilities of potential combinations between any kind of SaaS services as could be expected theoretically. These findings are expected to stir further research on the actual structure of open innovation systems that are driven by collective intelligence.

Suggested Citation

  • Kibae Kim & Jorn Altmann, 2013. "Evolution of the Software-as-a-Service Innovation System Through Collective Intelligence," TEMEP Discussion Papers 2013108, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Dec 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:snv:dp2009:2013108
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    File URL: ftp://147.46.237.98/DP-108.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2013
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kibae Kim & Jorn Altmann & Junseok Hwang, 2010. "Measuring and Analyzing the Openness of the Web2.0 Service Network for Improving the Innovation Capacity of the Web2.0 System through Collective Intelligence," TEMEP Discussion Papers 201057, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Mar 2010.
    2. Kibae Kim & Jorn Altmann & Junseok Hwang, 2010. "The Impact of the Subgroup Structure on the Evolution of Networks: An Economic Model of Network Evolution," TEMEP Discussion Papers 201056, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Feb 2010.
    3. Fu, Feng & Liu, Lianghuan & Wang, Long, 2008. "Empirical analysis of online social networks in the age of Web 2.0," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(2), pages 675-684.
    4. Henkel, Joachim, 2006. "Selective revealing in open innovation processes: The case of embedded Linux," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 953-969, September.
    5. Barabási, A.L & Jeong, H & Néda, Z & Ravasz, E & Schubert, A & Vicsek, T, 2002. "Evolution of the social network of scientific collaborations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 311(3), pages 590-614.
    6. Junseok Hwang & Jorn Altmann & Kibae Kim, 2009. "The Structural Evolution of the Web2.0 Service Network," TEMEP Discussion Papers 200914, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Sep 2009.
    7. Wagner, Caroline S. & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2005. "Network structure, self-organization, and the growth of international collaboration in science," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1608-1618, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kibae Kim & Jörn Altmann & Sodam Baek, 2015. "Role of Platform Providers in Software Ecosystems," TEMEP Discussion Papers 2015120, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Jan 2015.
    2. Netsanet Haile & Jörn Altmann, 2016. "Structural analysis of value creation in software service platforms," Electronic Markets, Springer;IIM University of St. Gallen, vol. 26(2), pages 129-142, May.
    3. Somayeh Koohborfardhaghighi & Jorn Altmann, 2014. "A Network Formation Model for Social Object Networks," TEMEP Discussion Papers 2014113, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Jun 2014.
    4. Kibae Kim & Wool-rim Lee & Jorn Altmann, 2014. "SNA-Based Innovation Trend Analysis in Software Service Networks," TEMEP Discussion Papers 2014115, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Aug 2014.
    5. Netsanet Haile & Jorn Altmann, 2015. "Value Creation in Software Service Platforms," TEMEP Discussion Papers 2015123, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Sep 2015.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Software-as-a-Service; Service Composition; Composite Services; Mashup; Network Evolution; Scale-Free Network; Openness; Collective Intelligence; Software Industry; Software Platforms.;

    JEL classification:

    • D85 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Network Formation
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation
    • L86 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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