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How fine targeted is ALMP to the youth long term unemployed in Italy?




This paper attempts a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the ability of the Italian Active Labour Market Policy (ALMP) to target long term youth unemployed. The European Employment Strategy (EES) has given a new impulse to ALMP as the main tool to fight long term youth unemployment. It has also stressed the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation of the results obtained. However, while monitoring is now established, little evaluation has been carried out so far. After providing up to date evidence of the size and features of youth unemployment in Italy, we show that the measures implemented include reforms of the education, training and employment systems and direct incentives to employ young workers. This suggests all the evaluation studies based on individual programmes are insufficient and an overall evaluation of the impact of the programmes on the employability of the workers involved is needed. The results of the econometric analysis, based on individual level YUSE data, suggest qualification and work experience are the most important determinants of job finding, especially in flows to employment in the formal sector. However, training and participation on ALMP does not significantly improve the employability of young workers. A number of reasons could explain this apparently surprising result. Especially in Southern regions, micropolicies could be totally ineffective because of the generally negative labour demand conditions. Moreover, expenditure on ALMP is very low (less than 1% of GDP in 1999), compared to the very high unemployment level. Thirdly, a substantial institutional and financial poverty still characterises labour supply policy. Finally, structural reforms, such as those relative to the educational system, require time to be completed and to produce their expected outcomes. In the meanwhile, workers involved in training programmes face the prospect of falling into a sort of "training trap".

Suggested Citation

  • Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2001. "How fine targeted is ALMP to the youth long term unemployed in Italy?," CELPE Discussion Papers 62, CELPE - CEnter for Labor and Political Economics, University of Salerno, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:sal:celpdp:62

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. O'Higgins, Niall, 2001. "Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective," MPRA Paper 23698, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    1. Dosi, G. & Pereira, M.C. & Roventini, A. & Virgillito, M.E., 2019. "What if supply-side policies are not enough? The perverse interaction of flexibility and austerity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 360-388.
    2. Kluve, Jochen & Fertig, Michael & Jacobi, Lena & Nima, Leonhard & Schaffner, Sandra & Schmidt, Christoph M. & Card, David & Góra, Marek & Jensen, Peter & Leetmaa, Reelika & Patacchini, Eleonora & van , 2005. "Study on the effectiveness of ALMPs: Research project for the European Commission, DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. Final report," RWI Projektberichte, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, number 69929, June.
    3. Kluve, Jochen, 2010. "The effectiveness of European active labor market programs," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 904-918, December.
    4. Kluve, Jochen, 2006. "The Effectiveness of European Active Labor Market Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 2018, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2009. "Le cause del(l') (in)successo lavorativo dei giovani," Economia & lavoro, Carocci editore, issue 3, pages 107-107.
    6. Pastore, Francesco, 2007. "Employment and Education Policy for Young People in the EU: What Can New Member States Learn from Old Member States?," IZA Discussion Papers 3209, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Van Winkle, Zachary & Fasang, Anette Eva, 2017. "Complexity in Employment Life Courses in Europe in the Twentieth Century—Large Cross-National Differences but Little Change across Birth Cohorts," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 96(1), pages 1-30.
    8. repec:hal:spmain:info:hdl:2441/3ii0pf6a4b8o4ovgol0f0kd8f3 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Brunetti, Irene & Corsini, Lorenzo, 2014. "Workplace Training Programs: Instruments for Human Capital Improvements or Screening Devices?," MPRA Paper 55943, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Halit Basbuga & Hatip Kitapci, 2020. "The Effects of the Incentive for Young and Female Employment Regulated By Law No. 6111 and Macroeconomic Variables on Employment, Informal Employment, and," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 10(5), pages 178-186.
    11. Halit Basbuga & Hakan Kitapci & Enes Cengiz Oguz & Yusuf Elkoca, 2022. "Active Labour Market Policies and Macroeconomic Variables on Employment, Informal Employment and Income Effects: The case of Turkey," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 12(2), pages 72-83, March.

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    More about this item


    European Employment Strategy; Youth Unemployment; Active Labour Market Policy; Italy; Regional Unemployment Differentials;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J63 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population


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