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Efficiency effects of quality of service and environmental factors: experience from Norwegian electricity distribution

  • Growitsch, Christian

    (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln)

  • Jamasb, Tooraj

    ()

    (Faculty of Economics University of Cambridge)

  • Wetzel, Heike

    ()

    (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln)

Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms (observable heterogeneity) and factors that are not identifiable (unobserved heterogeneity) on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001-2004 period. We utilize data on almost 100 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observable and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the factor analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. We then estimate the established stochastic frontier models of Battese and Coelli (1992; 1995) and the recent true fixed effects models of Greene (2004; 2005) without and with environmental variables. In the former models some composite environmental variables have a significant effect on the performance of utilities. These effects vanish in the true fixed effects models. However, the latter models capture the entire unobserved heterogeneity and therefore show significantly higher average efficiency scores.

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Paper provided by Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI) in its series EWI Working Papers with number 2010-3.

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Length: 18 pages
Date of creation: 11 Aug 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ris:ewikln:2010_003
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  1. Yu, William & Jamasb, Tooraj & Pollitt, Michael, 2009. "Does weather explain cost and quality performance? An analysis of UK electricity distribution companies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4177-4188, November.
  2. William Greene, 2002. "Fixed and Random Effects in Stochastic Frontier Models," Working Papers 02-16, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  3. Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1973. "Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 55(1), pages 28-45, February.
  4. William Greene, 2004. "Distinguishing between heterogeneity and inefficiency: stochastic frontier analysis of the World Health Organization's panel data on national health care systems," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(10), pages 959-980.
  5. Mehdi Farsi & Massimo Filippini & William Greene, 2005. "Efficiency Measurement in Network Industries: Application to the Swiss Railway Companies," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 69-90, 07.
  6. Mehdi Farsi & Massimo Filippini & Michael Kuenzle, 2006. "Cost Efficiency in Regional Bus Companies: An Application of Alternative Stochastic Frontier Models," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 40(1), pages 95-118, January.
  7. Yang, H. & Pollitt, M., 2007. "Incorporating Both Undesirable Outputs and Uncontrollable Variables into DEA: the Performance of Chinese Coal-Fired Power Plants," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0733, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  8. Førsund, Finn R. & Kittelsen, Sverre A. C., 1998. "Productivity development of Norwegian electricity distribution utilities," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 207-224, September.
  9. Jamasb, T. & Pollitt, M., 2000. "Benchmarking and regulation: international electricity experience," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 107-130, September.
  10. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
  11. Torstein Bye & Einar Hope, 2005. "Deregulation of electricity markets : The Norwegian experience," Discussion Papers 433, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  12. Leland Gerson Neuberg, 1977. "Two Issues in the Municipal Ownership of Electric Power Distribution," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 8(1), pages 303-323, Spring.
  13. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
  14. Mehdi Farsi & Massimo Filippini, 2006. "An Analysis of Efficiency and Productivity in Swiss Hospitals," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 142(I), pages 1-37, March.
  15. Greene, William, 2005. "Reconsidering heterogeneity in panel data estimators of the stochastic frontier model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 269-303, June.
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