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Australia’s Medium-run Exchange Rate: A Macroeconomic Balance Approach

  • Nikola Dvornak

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

  • Marion Kohler

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

  • Gordon Menzies

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

We analyse the determinants of Australia’s exchange rate in terms of the approach introduced by Williamson (1983), based on the simultaneous attainment of internal and external balance. Internal balance implies that the economy is operating at its supply potential with no inflationary pressures. External balance is characterised as the sustainable net flow of resources (corresponding to a current account to GDP ratio) between countries when they are in internal balance. The approach provides estimates of the medium-term exchange rate associated with a given current account position, although the estimates are highly sensitive to variations in key parameters.

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Paper provided by Reserve Bank of Australia in its series RBA Research Discussion Papers with number rdp2003-03.

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Date of creation: Mar 2003
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Handle: RePEc:rba:rbardp:rdp2003-03
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  1. David Gruen & Tim Robinson & Andrew Stone, 2002. "Output Gaps in Real Time: Are They Reliable Enough to Use for Monetary Policy?," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2002-06, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  2. G. Russell Kincaid & Martin Fetherston & Peter Isard & Hamid Faruqee, 2001. "Methodology for Current Account and Exchange Rate Assessments," IMF Occasional Papers 209, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
  4. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
  5. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-72, August.
  6. Luci Ellis, 2001. "Measuring the Real Exchange Rate: Pitfalls and Practicalities," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2001-04, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  7. Banerjee, Anindya & Dolado, Juan J. & Galbraith, John W. & Hendry, David, 1993. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288107.
  8. MacDonald, Ronald, 2000. "Concepts to Calculate Equilibrium Exchange Rates: An Overview," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2000,03, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  9. Meese, Richard A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1983. "Empirical exchange rate models of the seventies : Do they fit out of sample?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1-2), pages 3-24, February.
  10. Gordon Menzies, 1994. "Explaining the Timing of Australia's Manufactured Export Boom," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 27(4), pages 72-86.
  11. Wilkinson, Jenny, 1992. "Explaining Australia's Imports: 1974-1989," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 68(201), pages 151-64, June.
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