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Measuring the Real Exchange Rate: Pitfalls and Practicalities

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  • Luci Ellis

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

Abstract

The real exchange rate is an important concept in economic theory, but it is not directly observable and must be constructed, usually as an index. The construction of such indices requires a number of decisions – which currencies to include, the appropriate weighting scheme and the price measures to use – which materially alter the results. Unfortunately, theory often gives very little guidance on the appropriate assumptions to make when constructing an exchange rate index. This paper discusses the various choices, highlighting their differing implications. Some of the practical issues of calculation are also reviewed. Several exchange rate indices that have been used in analytical work in the Reserve Bank are presented. These will be updated quarterly on the Reserve Bank website at .

Suggested Citation

  • Luci Ellis, 2001. "Measuring the Real Exchange Rate: Pitfalls and Practicalities," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2001-04, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  • Handle: RePEc:rba:rbardp:rdp2001-04
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    File URL: http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/rdp/2001/pdf/rdp2001-04.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stephen J. Turnovsky, 1997. "International Macroeconomic Dynamics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262201119, January.
    2. Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Erika Arraño & Faruk Miguel, 2015. "Tipo de Cambio Real: Revisión Internacional," Economic Statistics Series 112, Central Bank of Chile.
    2. Khalid Mushtaq & Abdul Ghafoor & Abedullah & Farhan Ahmad, 2011. "Impact of Monetary and Macroeconomic Factors on Wheat Prices in Pakistan: Implications for Food Security," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 16(1), pages 95-110, Jan-Jun.
    3. Peter Wilson & Henry Ng Shang Ren, 2006. "Managing Exchange Rate Volatility : A Comparative Counterfactual Analysis Of Singapore 1994 To 2003," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22584, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    4. Alberto Felettigh & Claire Giordano & Giacomo Oddo & Valentina Romano, 2015. "Reassessing Price-Competitiveness Indicators of the Four Largest Euro-Area Countries and of their Main Trading Partners," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 280, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    5. Pavel Trunin & Dmitriy Kniazev & Ekaterina Kuduykina, 2010. "Perspective issues in the CBR`s exchange rate policy," Research Paper Series, Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, issue 144P.
    6. Carlos A.Huertas Campos & Consuelo Villalba Torres & Julián A.Parra Polanía, 2004. "Índice de Competitividad Colombiana con Terceros Países en el Mercado Estadounidense (ITCR-C)," Borradores de Economia 273, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Qin, Duo, 2008. "Uncover Latent PPP by Dynamic Factor Error Correction Model (DF-ECM) Approach: Evidence from Five OECD Countries," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 2, pages 1-26.
    8. Rodrigo Caputo G. & Marco Núñez N. & Rodrigo Valdés P., 2008. "Análisis del tipo de cambio en la práctica," Investigación Conjunta-Joint Research,in: Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos (CEMLA) (ed.), Estimación y Uso de Variables no Observables en la Región, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 313-364 Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
    9. Peter Wilson & Henry Ng Shang Ren, 2006. "Managing Exchange Rate Volatility: A Comparative Counterfactual Analysis of Singapore 1994 to 2003," SCAPE Policy Research Working Paper Series 0608, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics, SCAPE.
    10. Sebastian Dullien, 2005. "China's Changing Competitive Position: Lessons from a Unit-Labor- Cost-Based REER," International Trade 0502016, EconWPA.
    11. Arslan Razmi & Robert Blecker, 2008. "Developing Country Exports of Manufactures: Moving Up the Ladder to Escape the Fallacy of Composition?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(1), pages 21-48.
    12. Li, Ying & Rowe, Francis, 2007. "Aid inflows and the real effective exchange rate in Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4456, The World Bank.
    13. repec:wsi:serxxx:v:54:y:2009:i:04:n:s0217590809003525 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Chowdhury, Khorshed, 2007. "Are The Real Exchange Rate Indices of Australia Non-Stationary in the Presence of Structural Break?," Economics Working Papers wp07-05, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    15. Aykut Kibritcioglu & Bengi Kibritcioglu, 2004. "Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Turkey, 1987-2003 (in Turkish)," Macroeconomics 0403006, EconWPA, revised 22 Apr 2004.
    16. David Norman, 2006. "Modelling Manufactured Exports: Evidence from Australian States," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2006-01, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    17. Kalina Dimitrova & Martin Ivanov & Ralitsa Simeonova-Ganeva, 2009. "Effective exchange rates of the Bulgarian Lev 1879-1939," ICER Working Papers 04-2009, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
    18. Nikola Dvornak & Marion Kohler & Gordon Menzies, 2005. "Australia's Medium-Run Exchange Rate: A Macroeconomic Balance Approach," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 81(253), pages 101-112, June.
    19. David M. Williams, 2010. "Consumption, wealth and credit liberalisation in Australia," Economics Series Working Papers 492, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    20. Adnan Velic, 2017. "Current Account Imbalances, Real Exchange Rates, and Nominal Exchange Rate Variability," Trinity Economics Papers tep1417, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
    21. Kenneth W. Clements & H.Y Izan & Yihui Lan, 2005. "A Stochastic Measure of International Competitiveness," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 05-15, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    22. Rodrigo Caputo G. & Marco Núñez N. & Rodrigo O. Valdés P., 2008. "Exchange Rate Analysis in Practice," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 11(1), pages 61-91, April.
    23. repec:rss:jnljfm:v1i3p2 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Peter Wilson, 2007. "Exchange Rate Cooperation in East Asia – Why a Basket Approach may be best," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22586, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    effective exchange rate; index numbers; real exchange rate index;

    JEL classification:

    • C82 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data; Data Access
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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