A Stochastic Search Algorithm for the Computation of Perfect and Proper Equilibria
This paper shows that stochastic search algorithms can be used to compute the perfect and proper equilibria of finite games. These type of equilibria use perturbations as a means of escape from local equilibria. Intuitively, there is always a small probability that an agent will select alternative strategy, even if that strategy is sub-optimal. This allows agents to escape from local equilibria in much the same way that stochastic search algorithms (like genetic algorithms and simulated annealing, for example) escape from local equilibria. This paper constructs a possibility result showing that if this equilibrium exists, then it can be found by using a stochastic search algorithm. This paper also shows by example, using the three player extensive game "Selten's Horse", that stochastic search can be used to locate a perfect equilibrium in an extensive form game.
|Date of creation:||25 May 2013|
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- John C. Harsanyi & Reinhard Selten, 1988. "A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262582384, July.
- Bernhard von Stengel & Antoon van den Elzen & Dolf Talman, 2002.
"Computing Normal Form Perfect Equilibria for Extensive Two-Person Games,"
Econometric Society, vol. 70(2), pages 693-715, March.
- von Stengel, B. & van den Elzen, A.H. & Talman, A.J.J., 1997. "Computing normal form perfect equilibria for extensive two-person games," Research Memorandum 752, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- von Stengel, B. & van den Elzen, A.H. & Talman, A.J.J., 2002. "Computing normal form perfect equilibria for extensive two-person games," Other publications TiSEM 9f112346-b587-47f3-ad2e-6, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Koller, Daphne & Megiddo, Nimrod, 1996. "Finding Mixed Strategies with Small Supports in Extensive Form Games," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 25(1), pages 73-92.
- Peter Miltersen & Troels Sørensen, 2010. "Computing a quasi-perfect equilibrium of a two-player game," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 42(1), pages 175-192, January.
- Blume, Lawrence E & Zame, William R, 1994. "The Algebraic Geometry of Perfect and Sequential Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 783-794, July.
- Lawrence E. Blume & William R. Zame, 1993. "The Algebraic Geometry of Perfect and Sequential Equilibrium," Game Theory and Information 9309001, EconWPA.
- Von Stengel, Bernhard, 2002. "Computing equilibria for two-person games," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications,in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 45, pages 1723-1759 Elsevier.
- Talman, A.J.J. & Doup, T.M., 1987. "A continuous deformation algorithm on the product space of unit simplices," Other publications TiSEM 0f7c777f-9ae5-4218-b3bd-2, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Talman, A.J.J. & van der Laan, G., 1982. "On the computation of fixed points on the product space of unit simplices and an application to noncooperative N-person games," Other publications TiSEM ba74b902-87c8-43d5-8471-6, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- McKelvey, Richard D. & McLennan, Andrew, 1996. "Computation of equilibria in finite games," Handbook of Computational Economics,in: H. M. Amman & D. A. Kendrick & J. Rust (ed.), Handbook of Computational Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 87-142 Elsevier.
- Koller, Daphne & Megiddo, Nimrod & von Stengel, Bernhard, 1996. "Efficient Computation of Equilibria for Extensive Two-Person Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 247-259, June. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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