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The Algebraic Geometry of Perfect and Sequential Equilibrium

Author

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  • Lawrence E. Blume

    (Cornell University)

  • William R. Zame

    (The Johns Hopkins University and UCLA)

Abstract

Two of the most important refinements of the Nash equilibrium concept for extensive form games with perfect recall are Selten's (1975) {\it perfect equilibrium\/} and Kreps and Wilson's (1982) more inclusive {\it sequential equilibrium\/}. These two equilibrium refinements are motivated in very different ways. Nonetheless, as Kreps and Wilson (1982, Section 7) point out, the two concepts lead to similar prescriptions for equilibrium play. For each particular game form, every perfect equilibrium is sequential. Moreover, for almost all assignments of payoffs to outcomes, almost all sequential equilibrium strategy profiles are perfect equilibrium profiles, and all sequential equilibrium outcomes are perfect equilibrium outcomes. \par We establish a stronger result: For almost all assignments of payoffs to outcomes, the sets of sequential and perfect equilibrium strategy profiles are identical. In other words, for almost all games each strategy profile which can be supported by beliefs satisfying the rationality requirement of sequential equilibrium can actually be supported by beliefs satisfying the stronger rationality requirement of perfect equilibrium. \par We obtain this result by exploiting the algebraic/geometric structure of these equilibrium correspondences, following from the fact that they are {\em semi-algebraic sets\/}; i.e., they are defined by finite systems of polynomial inequalities. That the perfect and sequential

Suggested Citation

  • Lawrence E. Blume & William R. Zame, 1993. "The Algebraic Geometry of Perfect and Sequential Equilibrium," Game Theory and Information 9309001, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpga:9309001 Note: paper = 16 pages (including title & abstract): LaTeX file; macros at top
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kreps, David M & Wilson, Robert, 1982. "Sequential Equilibria," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 863-894, July.
    2. Roger B. Myerson, 1986. "Axiomatic Foundations of Bayesian Decision Theory," Discussion Papers 671, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    3. Blume, Lawrence & Brandenburger, Adam & Dekel, Eddie, 1991. "Lexicographic Probabilities and Equilibrium Refinements," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 81-98, January.
    4. Simon, Leo K., 1987. "Basic Timing Games," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt8kt5h29p, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    5. Lawrence Blume & Adam Brandenburger & Eddie Dekel, 2014. "Lexicographic Probabilities and Choice Under Uncertainty," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Language of Game Theory Putting Epistemics into the Mathematics of Games, chapter 6, pages 137-160 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. McLennan, Andrew, 1989. "Consistent Conditional Systems in Noncooperative Game Theory," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 18(2), pages 141-174.
    7. Kohlberg, Elon & Mertens, Jean-Francois, 1986. "On the Strategic Stability of Equilibria," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1003-1037, September.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C7 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
    • D8 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

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