Remittances and Subjective Welfare in a Mixed-Motives Model: Evidence from Fiji
To analyze migrants’ remittance motivations we extend the mixed-motives model of private transfers developed by Cox et al (2004), incorporating subjectively-assessed recipient welfare. We test the model with customized survey data from Fiji, finding evidence supportive of altruism for households below a subjective threshold level, indicating that international migrants’ remittances provide important social protection coverage to households where formal social protection systems are lacking.Unlike previous studies, we also find a positive, exchange-motivated relationship for those above the threshold. The conventional linear model applied to the same sample uncovers neither relationship. We conclude that either crowding-out or crowding-in of remittances can occur when recipients’ welfare improves, depending on the household’s pre-transfer welfare level. The net effects of recipients’ welfare improvements on remittances, and the effects of remittances on poverty alleviation and income distribution, are consequently more complex and ambiguous than previous studies suggest.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: St. Lucia, Qld. 4072|
Phone: +61 7 3365 6570
Fax: +61 7 3365 7299
Web page: http://www.uq.edu.au/economics/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frédéric, 2005.
"The Economics of Migrants’ Remittances,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1531, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
- Sen, Amartya, 1983. "Poor, Relatively Speaking," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(2), pages 153-69, July.
- Krishna, Anirudh, 2004. "Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor: Who Gains, Who Loses, and Why?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 121-136, January.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Stark, Oded, 1987.
"Consumption Smoothing, Migration and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India,"
7515, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Stark, Oded, 1989. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 905-26, August.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2004.
"Well-being over time in Britain and the USA,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 88(7-8), pages 1359-1386, July.
- David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 2000. "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," NBER Working Papers 7487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2001. "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 616, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Easterlin, Richard A, 2001. "Income and Happiness: Towards an Unified Theory," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(473), pages 465-84, July.
- Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-40, September.
- Gary S. Becker, 1974.
"A Theory of Social Interactions,"
NBER Working Papers
0042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Luttmer, Erzo F. P., 2004.
"Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being,"
Working Paper Series
rwp04-029, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Erzo F. P. Luttmer, 2005. "Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(3), pages 963-1002.
- Erzo F.P. Luttmer, 2004. "Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being," NBER Working Papers 10667, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Taylor, J. Edward, 1992. "Remittances and inequality reconsidered: Direct, indirect, and intertemporal effects," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 187-208, April.
- Kaufmann, Daniel & Lindauer, David L., 1986. "A model of income transfers for the urban poor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 337-350.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Shilpi, Forhad, 2006.
"Subjective Welfare, Isolation and Relative Consumption,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6002, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Shilpi, Forhad, 2008. "Subjective welfare, isolation, and relative consumption," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 43-60, April.
- Robert Holzmann & Steen Jørgensen, 2001.
"Social Risk Management: A New Conceptual Framework for Social Protection, and Beyond,"
International Tax and Public Finance,
Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(4), pages 529-556, August.
- Robert Holzmann & Steen Jorgensen, 2000. "Social risk management : a new conceptual framework for social protection and beyond," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 21314, The World Bank.
- Cox, Donald, 1987. "Motives for Private Income Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 508-46, June.
- Harounan Kaziango, 2004.
"Motives for Household Private Transfers in Burkina Faso,"
895, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Kazianga, H., 2006. "Motives for household private transfers in Burkina Faso," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 73-117, February.
- Cox, Donald & Eser, Zekeriya & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 1998.
"Motives for private transfers over the life cycle: An analytical framework and evidence for Peru,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 57-80, February.
- Donald Cox & Zekeriya Eser & Emmanuel Jimenez, 1996. "Motives for Private Transfers over the Life Cycle: An Analytical Framework and Evidence for Peru," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 327., Boston College Department of Economics.
- Barro, Robert J., 1974.
"Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?,"
3451399, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Stark, Oded & Lucas, Robert E B, 1988. "Migration, Remittances, and the Family," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(3), pages 465-81, April.
- Caterina Ruggeri Laderchi & Ruhi Saith & Frances Stewart, 2003.
"Does it Matter that we do not Agree on the Definition of Poverty? A Comparison of Four Approaches,"
Oxford Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 243-274.
- Caterina Ruggeri Laderchi, Ruhi Saith and Frances Stewart, . "Does it matter that we don't agree on the definition of poverty? A comparison of four approaches," QEH Working Papers qehwps107, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Stark, Oded & Bloom, David E, 1985. "The New Economics of Labor Migration," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 173-78, May.
- Hoddinott, John & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2003. "Methods for microeconometric risk and vulnerability assessments," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 29138, The World Bank.
- Easterlin, Richard A., 1995. "Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 35-47, June.
- Altonji, Joseph G & Hayashi, Fumio & Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1992.
"Is the Extended Family Altruistically Linked? Direct Tests Using Micro Data,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1177-98, December.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Fumio Hayashi & Laurence J. Kotlikoff, 1989. "Is the Extended Family Altruistically Linked? Direct Tests Using Micro Data," NBER Working Papers 3046, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cox, Donald & Hansen, Bruce E. & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 2004.
"How responsive are private transfers to income? Evidence from a laissez-faire economy,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 2193-2219, August.
- Donald Cox & Bruce E. Hansen & Emmanuel Jimenez, 1997. "How Responsive are Private Transfers to Income? Evidence from a Laissez-Faire Economy," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 341., Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Dec 1999.
- John Gibson & Susan Olivia & Scott Rozelle, 2006. "How Widespread are Non-linear Crowding Out Out Effects? The Response of Private Transfers to Income in Four Developing Countries," Working Papers in Economics 06/01, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
- Cox, Donald & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2008. "Extended Family and Kinship Networks: Economic Insights and Evolutionary Directions," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:qld:uq2004:370. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SOE IT)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.