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An FDI-driven approach to measuring the scale and economic impact of BEPS

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  • Bolwijn, Richard
  • Casella, Bruno
  • Rigo, Davide

Abstract

This paper explores the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the BEPS (base erosion and profit shifting) practices of multinationals (MNEs). It puts the spotlight on the outsize role of offshore investment hubs as major players in global corporate investment, a role that is largely due to MNEs’ tax planning, although other factors contribute. The paper shows that tax avoidance practices enabled by FDI through offshore hubs are responsible for significant leakage of development financing resources. In policy terms, these findings call for enhanced cooperation and synergies between international tax and investment policymaking.

Suggested Citation

  • Bolwijn, Richard & Casella, Bruno & Rigo, Davide, 2018. "An FDI-driven approach to measuring the scale and economic impact of BEPS," MPRA Paper 95189, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:95189
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Robert E. Lipsey, 2007. "Defining and Measuring the Location of FDI Output," NBER Working Papers 12996, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Richard Bolwijn, & Bruno Casella & Davide Rigo, . "Establishing the baseline: estimating the fiscal contribution of multinational enterprises," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    3. Jannick Damgaard & Thomas Elkjaer, 2017. "The Global FDI Network: Searching for Ultimate Investors," IMF Working Papers 2017/258, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Vararat Atisophon & Jesus Bueren & Gregory De Paepe & Christopher Garroway & Jean-Philippe Stijns, 2011. "Revisiting MDG Cost Estimates from a Domestic Resource Mobilisation Perspective," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 306, OECD Publishing.
    5. Dharmapala, Dhammika & Riedel, Nadine, 2013. "Earnings shocks and tax-motivated income-shifting: Evidence from European multinationals," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 95-107.
    6. Dhammika Dharmapala, 2014. "What Do We Know about Base Erosion and Profit Shifting? A Review of the Empirical Literature," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 35, pages 421-448, December.
    7. Sjoerd Beugelsdijk & Jean-François Hennart & Arjen Slangen & Roger Smeets, 2010. "Why and how FDI stocks are a biased measure of MNE affiliate activity," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(9), pages 1444-1459, December.
    8. Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc, 2008. "International profit shifting within multinationals: A multi-country perspective," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1164-1182, June.
    9. Ernesto Crivelli & Ruud De Mooij & Michael Keen, 2016. "Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 72(3), pages 268-301, September.
    10. Clemens Fuest & Nadine Riedel, 2010. "Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance in Developing Countries: The Role of International Profit Shifting," Working Papers 1012, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    11. Sjoerd Beugelsdijk & Jean-François Hennart & Arjen Slangen & Roger Smeets, 2010. "Why and how FDI stocks are a biased measure of MNE affiliate activity," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(9), pages 1444-1459, December.
    12. Casella, Bruno, 2019. "FDI Statistics and International Production: Towards (Re-) Conciliation?," MPRA Paper 95203, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 May 2019.
    13. James R. Hines & Eric M. Rice, 1994. "Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(1), pages 149-182.
    14. David Bradbury, & Tibor Hanappi & Anne Moore, . "Estimating the fiscal effects of base erosion and profit shifting: data availability and analytical issues," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    15. Cobham, Alex & Loretz, Simon, 2014. "International Distribution of the Corporate Tax Base: Implications of Different Apportionment Factors under Unitary Taxation," Working Papers 11176, Institute of Development Studies, International Centre for Tax and Development.
    16. Petr Janský & Miroslav Palanský, 2019. "Estimating the scale of profit shifting and tax revenue losses related to foreign direct investment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 26(5), pages 1048-1103, October.
    17. Kimberly A. Clausing, 2016. "The Effect of Profit Shifting on the Corporate Tax Base in the United States and Beyond," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 69(4), pages 905-934, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Petr Janský & Miroslav Palanský, 2019. "Estimating the scale of profit shifting and tax revenue losses related to foreign direct investment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 26(5), pages 1048-1103, October.
    2. David Bradbury, & Tibor Hanappi & Anne Moore, . "Estimating the fiscal effects of base erosion and profit shifting: data availability and analytical issues," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    3. I. P. Gurova, 2020. "Offshore Investment in the Russian Economy," Studies on Russian Economic Development, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 449-456, July.
    4. Virginia Di Nino & Anna Ekstam, 2020. "What value added in the trade balances of euro area financial centres?," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Bridging measurement challenges and analytical needs of external statistics: evolution or revolution?, volume 52, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Richard Bolwijn, & Bruno Casella & Davide Rigo, . "Establishing the baseline: estimating the fiscal contribution of multinational enterprises," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    6. Barbara Bratta & Vera Santomartino & Paolo Acciari, 2021. "Assessing profit shifting using Country-by-Country Reports: a non-linear response to tax rate differentials," Working Papers wp2021-11, Ministry of Economy and Finance, Department of Finance.
    7. Bruno Casella, . "Looking through conduit FDI in search of ultimate investors – a probabilistic approach," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    8. Petr Janský & Miroslav Palanský, 2019. "Estimating the scale of profit shifting and tax revenue losses related to foreign direct investment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 26(5), pages 1048-1103, October.
    9. Casella, Bruno, 2019. "Looking through conduit FDI in search of ultimate investors – a probabilistic approach," MPRA Paper 95188, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Fabian J. Baier, 2020. "Foreign Direct Investment and Tax: OECD Gravity Modelling in a World with International Financial Institutions," Athens Journal of Business & Economics, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), vol. 6(1), pages 45-72, October.
    11. Alex Cobham & Petr Janský & Chris Jones & Yama Temouri, . "An evaluation of the effects of the European Commission's proposals for the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    12. Thomas Torslov & Ludvig Wier & Gabriel Zucman, 2020. "The Missing Profits of Nations," Working Papers halshs-03022293, HAL.
    13. Ali Ahmed & Chris Jones & Yama Temouri, . "The relationship between MNE tax haven use and FDI into developing economies characterized by capital flight," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    multinational enterprise; BEPS; revenue losses; developing countries; offshore investment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • F38 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls

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