Defining and Measuring the Location of FDI Output
The standard measures of flows and stocks of FDI view FDI as a financial flow and its accumulation as a stock, but most uses of FDI data require measures of employment, payrolls, capital inputs, and output from FDI. Judging by data for the United States, the flow and stock data provide rough approximations to country distributions of FDI sources and destinations, but are poor approximations to industry distributions of FDI and to changes over time in country and industry distributions. One important reason for the poor match between the two types of measures is that more and more of production is the output from intangible and financial assets, the location of which is determined by the firm itself, and not easily subject to outside verification. That development is combined with the increasing use of holding companies and chains of ownership to reduce tax burdens on the firms without necessarily altering the physical location of inputs or production. These developments have drawn the attention of tax authorities and led to some proposals that would reduce firms' ability to manipulate the location of assets and profits. However, these maneuvers also lead to ambiguities in the meaning of economic measures, such as the balance of payments and national product. The effects on economic measurements, which may influence many types of economic policy, have been submerged in the concern for tax revenues.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2007|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James R. Hines Jr., 2005.
"Do Tax Havens Flourish?,"
in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 19, pages 65-100
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fuest, Clemens & Hemmelgarn, Thomas & Ramb, Fred, 2006. "How would formula apportionment in the EU affect the distribution and the size of the corporate tax base? An analysis based on German multinationals," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2006,20, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Markusen, James R., 2002.
"Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade,"
8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- James R. Markusen, 2004. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633078, September.
- Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines Jr., 2002. "Chains of Ownership, Regional Tax Competition, and Foreign Direct Investment," NBER Working Papers 9224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12996. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.