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Does Income and education of working-women transform societal values: An evidence from Pakistan

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  • Riaz, Rida

Abstract

Women’s socio-economic empowerment is instrumental in transforming the societal values particularly in developing countries. However, this transition from traditional to modern social values is linked to women’s income and education levels. This paper investigates this phenomenon in the context of working women in Pakistan. To this extent, three hundred and six working-women were interviewed in urban vicinity of Lahore city. By employing Multinomial logit model our study confirms that socio-economic status of working-women plays a significant role in transforming their social values. Both income and education levels of working-women tend to display similar association to values, although differences persist in some important dimensions. Women’s empowerment through higher education and rising income leads to more bargaining power in household decision making, increasing political participation, and valuing gender equality. However, modernization as result of increased income levels and education has led to a decline in importance of religion in women from upper classes unlike the lower classes.

Suggested Citation

  • Riaz, Rida, 2017. "Does Income and education of working-women transform societal values: An evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 80798, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:80798
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/80798/1/MPRA_paper_80798.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bangwayo-Skeete, Prosper F. & Rahim, Afaf H. & Zikhali, Precious, 2011. "Does education engender cultural values that matter for economic growth?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 163-171, April.
    2. Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2008. "What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 3-28, Spring.
    3. Tamio Hattori & Tsuruyo Funatsu, 2003. "The Emergence Of The Asian Middle Classes And Their Characteristics," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 41(2), pages 140-160, June.
    4. Tamio Hattori & Tsuruyo Funatsu & Takashi Torii, 2003. "Introduction: The Emergence Of The Asian Middle Classes And Their Characteristics," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 41(2), pages 129-139, June.
    5. Daniel McFadden & Kenneth Train, 2000. "Mixed MNL models for discrete response," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(5), pages 447-470.
    6. Ray, Debraj, 2007. "Introduction to development theory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 1-10, November.
    7. Casper Hansen & Peter Jensen & Christian Skovsgaard, 2015. "Modern gender roles and agricultural history: the Neolithic inheritance," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 365-404, December.
    8. repec:cup:apsrev:v:91:y:1997:i:02:p:373-389_21 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Keywords

    Relation of Economics with Social Values; Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables: General; Household behavior and family economics.;

    JEL classification:

    • A1 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics
    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior

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