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Turning Human Waste into Renewable Energy: Scope and Options for India

Author

Listed:
  • Mukherjee, Sacchidananda
  • Chakraborty, Debashis

Abstract

With rise in population and the ongoing urbanisation drive, the urge to ensure energy security both for the rural and urban areas has emerged as a major challenge in India. The demand for energy has increased in all spheres of life, e.g. for cooking, cultivation, production purposes, transportation, and so on. Although through various government initiatives, adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking has increased, given the vast population, use of biofuels is expected to continue for poorer households. Generation of biogas from cattle waste in India has intensified through policies, but the same from human waste is still in a nascent stage. The present study explores the possibilities of recovering energy and nutrients from human waste by discussing the present system of human waste collection, treatment and disposal in India, followed by the reasons behind the failures of the past initiatives (e.g., Ganga Action Plan, GAP). It further focuses on a few alternative systems and their technical feasibility. It is concluded that various ongoing policies, viz., National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ (SBM) - should be coordinated for integrating collection and treatment of human waste for generation of renewable energy.

Suggested Citation

  • Mukherjee, Sacchidananda & Chakraborty, Debashis, 2016. "Turning Human Waste into Renewable Energy: Scope and Options for India," MPRA Paper 73669, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:73669
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/73669/1/MPRA_paper_73669.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jouko Arvola & Pekka Belt & Janne Harkonen & Pekka Kess & Ritva Imppola, 2012. "Biogas as an option for industrial applications," International Journal of Sustainable Economy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1), pages 71-88.
    2. Mukherjee, S., 2007. "Groundwater pollution and emerging environmental challenges of industrial effluent irrigation in Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamil Nadu," IWMI Working Papers H042365, International Water Management Institute.
    3. P. Srinivasan & Inder Siddanth Ravindra, 2015. "Causality among Energy Consumption, CO2 Emission, Economic Growth and Trade," Foreign Trade Review, , vol. 50(3), pages 168-189, August.
    4. Hussain, I. & Raschid, L. & Hanjra, M. A. & Marikar, F. & van der Hoek, W., 2002. "Wastewater use in agriculture: Review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts," IWMI Working Papers H030078, International Water Management Institute.
    5. Priyam Das & Kenneth R. Tamminga, 2012. "The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(8), pages 1-22, July.
    6. Ensink, J. H. J. & van der Hoek, W. & Matsuno, Y. & Munir, S. & Aslam, M. R., 2002. "Use of untreated wastewater in peri-urban agriculture in Pakistan: risks and opportunities," IWMI Research Reports H030848, International Water Management Institute.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, 2019. "Exploring Low-Carbon Energy Security Path for India: Role of Asia-Pacific Energy Cooperation," Working Papers 19/259, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    human waste management; urban wastewater management; renewable energy; resource recovery; biogas generation; public health management; government policy; technology adoption; energy policy; India.;

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
    • Q35 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Hydrocarbon Resources
    • Q37 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Issues in International Trade
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy

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