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Temporal and spatial homogeneity in air pollutants panel EKC estimations: Two nonparametric tests applied to Spanish provinces

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  • Ordás Criado, Carlos

Abstract

Although panel data have been used intensively by a wealth of studies investigating the GDP-pollution relationship, the poolability assumption used to model these data is almost never addressed. This paper applies a strategy to test the poolability assumption with methods robust to functional misspecification. Nonparametric poolability tests are performed to check the temporal and spatial homogeneity of the panel and their results are compared with the conventional F-tests for a balanced panel of 48 Spanish provinces on four air pollutant emissions (CH4, CO, CO2 and NMVOC) over the 1990-2002 period. We show that temporal homogeneity may allow the pooling of the data and drive to well-defined nonparametric and parametric cross-sectional U-inverted shapes for all air pollutants. However, the presence of spatial heterogeneity makes this shape compatible with different timeseries patterns in every province - mainly increasing or decreasing depending on the pollutant. These results highlight the extreme sensitivity of the income-pollution relationship to region- or country-specific factors.

Suggested Citation

  • Ordás Criado, Carlos, 2007. "Temporal and spatial homogeneity in air pollutants panel EKC estimations: Two nonparametric tests applied to Spanish provinces," MPRA Paper 5043, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:5043
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    2. Salvati Luca, 2013. "Land Quality, Development and Space: Does Scale Matter?," European Spatial Research and Policy, Sciendo, vol. 20(2), pages 99-112, December.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curve; Air pollutants; Non/Semiparametric estimations; Poolability tests;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

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