Temporal and spatial homogeneity in air pollutants panel EKC estimations: Two nonparametric tests applied to Spanish provinces
Although panel data have been used intensively by a wealth of studies investigating the GDP-pollution relationship, the poolability assumption used to model these data is almost never addressed. This paper applies a strategy to test the poolability assumption with methods robust to functional misspecification. Nonparametric poolability tests are performed to check the temporal and spatial homogeneity of the panel and their results are compared with the conventional F-tests for a balanced panel of 48 Spanish provinces on four air pollutant emissions (CH4, CO, CO2 and NMVOC) over the 1990-2002 period. We show that temporal homogeneity may allow the pooling of the data and drive to well-defined nonparametric and parametric cross-sectional U-inverted shapes for all air pollutants. However, the presence of spatial heterogeneity makes this shape compatible with different timeseries patterns in every province - mainly increasing or decreasing depending on the pollutant. These results highlight the extreme sensitivity of the income-pollution relationship to region- or country-specific factors.
|Date of creation:||31 Aug 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Baltagi, Badi H. & Hidalgo, Javier & Li, Qi, 1996. "A nonparametric test for poolability using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 345-367, December.
- David I. Stern, 2012. "Ecological Economics," Crawford School Research Papers 1203, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
- Daniel L. Millimet & John A. List & Thanasis Stengos, 2003.
"The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Real Progress or Misspecified Models?,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1038-1047, November.
- Daniel Millimet & John List & Thanasis Stengos, 2003. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Real Progress or Misspecified Models?," Natural Field Experiments 00500, The Field Experiments Website.
- Stengos, T. & Millimet, D.L. & List, J.A., 2002. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Real Progress or Misspecified Models?," Working Papers 2002-13, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
- Azomahou, Théophile & Laisney, François & van Phu, Nguyen, 2005.
"Economic Development and CO2 Emissions: A Nonparametric Panel Approach,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
05-56, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Azomahou, Theophile & Laisney, Francois & Nguyen Van, Phu, 2006. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: A nonparametric panel approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(6-7), pages 1347-1363, August.
- List, John A. & Gallet, Craig A., 1999.
"The environmental Kuznets curve: does one size fit all?,"
Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 409-423, December.
- Craig Gallet & John List, 1999. "The environmental Kuznets curve: does one size fit all," Natural Field Experiments 00527, The Field Experiments Website.
- Richard Schmalensee & Thomas M. Stoker & Ruth A. Judson, 1998. "World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 15-27, February.
- De GROOT, HENRI L.F. & WITHAGEN, CEES A. & MINLIANG, ZHOU, 2004. "Dynamics of China's regional development and pollution: an investigation into the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(04), pages 507-537, August.
- Roca, Jordi & Padilla, Emilio & Farre, Mariona & Galletto, Vittorio, 2001. "Economic growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: discussing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 85-99, October.
- Yatchew,Adonis, 2003.
"Semiparametric Regression for the Applied Econometrician,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521012263, September.
- Yatchew,Adonis, 2003. "Semiparametric Regression for the Applied Econometrician," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521812832, September.
- Roger Perman & David I. Stern, 2003.
"Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not exist,"
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics,
Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 47(3), pages 325-347, 09.
- Perman, Roger & Stern, David I., 2003. "Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not exist," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 47(3), September.
- Bertinelli, Luisito & Strobl, Eric, 2005.
"The Environmental Kuznets Curve semi-parametrically revisited,"
Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 350-357, September.
- BERTINELLI, Luisito & STROBL, Eric, 2004. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve semi-parametrically revisited," CORE Discussion Papers 2004051, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1994.
"Economic Growth and the Environment,"
NBER Working Papers
4634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heil, Mark T. & Selden, Thomas M., 2001. "Carbon emissions and economic development: future trajectories based on historical experience," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(01), pages 63-83, February.
- Jordi Roca & Emilio Padilla & Mariona Farré & Vittorio Galletto, 2001. "Economic growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: discussing the environmental Kuznets curve by hypothesis," Working Papers wp0101, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2003.
"Trade, Growth and the Environment,"
NBER Working Papers
9823, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Elbert Dijkgraaf & Herman Vollebergh, 2005. "A Test for Parameter Homogeneity in CO 2 Panel EKC Estimations," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 32(2), pages 229-239, October.
- Taskin, Fatma & Zaim, Osman, 2000. "Searching for a Kuznets curve in environmental efficiency using kernel estimation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 217-223, August.
- Brock, William A. & Taylor, M. Scott, 2005.
"Economic Growth and the Environment: A Review of Theory and Empirics,"
Handbook of Economic Growth,
in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 28, pages 1749-1821
- William A. Brock & M. Scott Taylor, 2004. "Economic Growth and the Environment: A Review of Theory and Empirics," NBER Working Papers 10854, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- de Bruyn, S. M. & van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. & Opschoor, J. B., 1998. "Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 161-175, May.
- Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise, 1999. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 231-244, February.
- Maindonald, John, 2006. "Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 16(b03).
- Nikolay Nenovsky & S. Statev, 2006. "Introduction," Post-Print halshs-00260898, HAL.
- Vollebergh, H.R.J. & Dijkgraaf, E. & Melenberg, B., 2005. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity," Discussion Paper 2005-25, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:5043. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.