A Critical Evaluation of the Significance of Round Numbers in European Equity Markets in Light of the Predictions from Benford’s Law
In this study, we test the hypothesis that psychological barriers exist in 5 European Equity Market indices [ATX, CAC, DAX, FTSE, SMI]. We employ both a traditional methodology that assumes a uniform distribution of M-Values and a modified approach that accounts for the fact that the digits of stock prices may be distributed in accordance with Benford’s law. In addition, we test the validity of the various assumptions employed in these tests using a Monte Carlo Simulation and Kuiper’s Modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of Fit Test. We find evidence for barriers in 1 index [SMI] at the 1000 level under the assumption of uniformity but no significant evidence of barriers at the 100 level or at the 1000 level in the remaining indices. We also find evidence that substantiates the criticism of the use of the uniformity assumption for tests at the 1000 level in favour of a distribution consistent with Benford’s Law. However, we do not reach a different conclusion on the presence of psychological barriers when tests are performed without the implicit use of that uniformity assumption. In addition, we find possible evidence of price clustering around round numbers at the 1000 level in 2 indices [CAC, DAX] even after adjusting for the expected concentration within the region due to Benford-specific effects.
|Date of creation:||28 Aug 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dorfleitner, Gregor & Klein, Christian, 2009. "Psychological barriers in European stock markets: Where are they?," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 268-285.
- Koedijk, Kees G. & Stork, Philip A., 1994. "Should we care? psychological barriers in stock markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 427-432, April.
- David E. Giles, 2005.
"Benford’s Law and Naturally Occurring Prices in Certain ebaY Auctions,"
Econometrics Working Papers
0505, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
- David Giles, 2007. "Benford's law and naturally occurring prices in certain ebaY auctions," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 157-161.
- Bertola, Giuseppe & Caballero, Ricardo, 1990.
"Target Zones and Realignments,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
398, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Donaldson, R. Glen & Kim, Harold Y., 1993. "Price Barriers in the Dow Jones Industrial Average," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(03), pages 313-330, September.
- John Morrow, 2014.
"Benford's Law, families of distributions and a test basis,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
60364, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- John Morrow, 2014. "Benford's Law, Families of Distributions and a Test Basis," CEP Discussion Papers dp1291, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Harris, Lawrence, 1991. "Stock Price Clustering and Discreteness," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(3), pages 389-415.
- Schindler, Robert M & Kirby, Patrick N, 1997. " Patterns of Rightmost Digits Used in Advertised Prices: Implications for Nine-Ending Effects," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 192-201, September.
- Sonnemans, Joep, 2006. "Price clustering and natural resistance points in the Dutch stock market: A natural experiment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(8), pages 1937-1950, November.
- George Judge & Laura Schechter, 2009. "Detecting Problems in Survey Data Using Benford’s Law," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(1).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:40960. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.