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The financial trilemma in China and a comparative analysis with India

  • Aizenman, Joshua
  • Sengupta, Rajeswari

A key challenge facing most emerging market economies today is how to simultaneously maintain monetary independence, exchange rate stability and financial integration subject to the constraints imposed by the Trilemma, in an era of widespread globalization. In this paper we overview and contrast the Trilemma policy choices and tradeoffs faced by the two key drivers of global economic growth-China and India. China’s Trilemma configurations are unique relative to other emerging markets in the predominance of exchange rate stability, and in the failure of the Trilemma regression to capture a consistently significant role for financial integration. In contrast, the Trilemma configurations of India are in line with choices made by other emerging countries. India like other emerging economies has overtime converged towards a middle ground between the three policy objectives, and has achieved comparable levels of exchange rate stability and financial integration buffered by sizeable international reserves.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 39798.

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Date of creation: 01 Nov 2011
Date of revision: 03 Jul 2012
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:39798
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  1. Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2009. "Sterilization, Monetary Policy, and Global Financial Integration," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 777-801, 09.
  2. Obstfeld, Maurice & Shambaugh, Jay C & Taylor, Alan M., 2008. "Financial Stability, the Trilemma, and International Reserves," CEPR Discussion Papers 6693, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Patnaik, Ila & Shah, Ajay & Sethy, Anmol & Balasubramaniam, Vimal, 2011. "The exchange rate regime in Asia: From crisis to crisis," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 32-43, January.
  4. Vladimir Sokolov & Byung‐Joo Lee & Nelson C. Mark, 2011. "Linkages Between Exchange Rate Policy And Macroeconomic Performance," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 395-420, October.
  5. Reuven Glick & Michael Hutchison, 2008. "Navigating the Trilemma: Capital Flows and Monetary Policy in China," Working Papers 252008, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  6. Aizenman, Joshua & D. Chinn, Menzie & Ito, Hiro, 2009. "Surfing the Waves of Globalization: Asia and Financial Globalization in the Context of the Trilemma," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 180, Asian Development Bank.
  7. Aizenman, Joshua & Chinn, Menzie & Ito, Hiro, 2010. "The Financial Crisis, Rethinking of the Global Financial Architecture, and the Trilemma," ADBI Working Papers 213, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  8. Edwards, Sebastian & Levy Yeyati, Eduardo, 2005. "Flexible exchange rates as shock absorbers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(8), pages 2079-2105, November.
  9. Hutchison, Michael & Kendall, Jake & Pasricha, Gurnain & Singh, Nirvikar, 2010. "Indian Capital Control Liberalization: Evidence from NDF Markets," MPRA Paper 21771, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Ajay Shah, 2008. "New issues in Indian macro policy," Working Papers id:1478, eSocialSciences.
  11. Michael Hutchison & Rajeswari Sengupta & Nirvikar Singh, 2012. "India’s Trilemma: Financial Liberalisation, Exchange Rates and Monetary Policy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, 01.
  12. ChangJin Kim & Jong-Wha Lee, 2008. "Exchange Rate Regime And Monetary Policy Independence In East Asia," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(2), pages 155-170, 05.
  13. Prema-chandra Athukorala, 2009. "Outward Direct Investment from India," Departmental Working Papers 2009-14, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
  14. R. Kohli, 2012. "India’s Experience in Navigating the Trilemma : Do Capital Controls Help?," Governance Working Papers 23184, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
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