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The Impossible Trinity: Where does India stand?

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  • Sengupta, Rajeswari

Abstract

The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and the heightened macroeconomic and financial volatility that followed the crisis raised important questions about the current international financial architecture as well as about individual countries’ external macroeconomic policies. Policy- makers dealing with the global crisis have been confronted with the ‘impossible trinity’ or the ‘Trilemma’, a potent paradigm of open economy macroeconomics asserting that a country may not target the exchange rate, conduct an independent monetary policy and have full financial integration, all at the same time. This issue is highly pertinent for India. A number of challenges have emanated from India’s greater integration with the global financial markets during the last two decades, one of which includes managing the policy tradeoffs under the Trilemma. In this chapter, I present a comprehensive overview of a few empirical studies that have explored the issue of Trilemma in the Indian context. Based on these studies I attempt to analyze how have Indian policy makers dealt with the various trade-offs while managing the Trilemma over the last two decades.

Suggested Citation

  • Sengupta, Rajeswari, 2015. "The Impossible Trinity: Where does India stand?," MPRA Paper 63308, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:63308
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    1. Maurice Obstfeld & Jay C. Shambaugh & Alan M. Taylor, 2005. "The Trilemma in History: Tradeoffs Among Exchange Rates, Monetary Policies, and Capital Mobility," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 423-438, August.
    2. Ajay Shah, 2008. "New issues in Indian macro policy," Working Papers id:1478, eSocialSciences.
    3. Aizenman, Joshua & Chinn, Menzie D. & Ito, Hiro, 2011. "Surfing the waves of globalization: Asia and financial globalization in the context of the trilemma," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 290-320, September.
    4. Patnaik, Ila & Shah, Ajay & Sethy, Anmol & Balasubramaniam, Vimal, 2011. "The exchange rate regime in Asia: From crisis to crisis," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 32-43, January.
    5. Joshua Aizenman & Rajeswari Sengupta, 2013. "Financial Trilemma in China and a Comparative Analysis with India," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(2), pages 123-146, May.
    6. Aizenman, Joshua, 2010. "The Impossible Trinity (aka The Policy Trilemma)," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9k29n6qn, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    7. Y V Reddy, 2008. "Management of the Capital Account in India: Some Perspectives," Working Papers id:1327, eSocialSciences.
    8. Maurice Obstfeld & Jay C. Shambaugh & Alan M. Taylor, 2010. "Financial Stability, the Trilemma, and International Reserves," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 57-94, April.
    9. Zeileis, Achim & Shah, Ajay & Patnaik, Ila, 2010. "Testing, monitoring, and dating structural changes in exchange rate regimes," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(6), pages 1696-1706, June.
    10. Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2007. "The external wealth of nations mark II: Revised and extended estimates of foreign assets and liabilities, 1970-2004," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 223-250, November.
    11. Michael Hutchison & Rajeswari Sengupta & Nirvikar Singh, 2012. "India’s Trilemma: Financial Liberalisation, Exchange Rates and Monetary Policy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, January.
    12. Michael M Hutchison & Gurnain Kaur Pasricha & Nirvikar Singh, 2012. "Effectiveness of Capital Controls in India: Evidence from the Offshore NDF Market," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 60(3), pages 395-438, September.
    13. Mohan, Rakesh & Kapur, Muneesh, 2009. "Managing the Impossible Trinity: Volatile Capital Flows and Indian Monetary Policy," MPRA Paper 70632, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kumar, Shekhar Hari & Patnaik, Ila, 2018. "Internationalisation of the Rupee," Working Papers 18/222, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    2. Padhan, Hemachandra & Sahu, Santosh Kumar & Dash, Umakant, 2021. "Non-linear analysis of international reserve, trade and trilemma in India," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 23(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Impossible Trinity; Financial Integration; Currency Stabilization; International Reserves; Sterilized Intervention;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • F6 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization

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