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Effects of schooling levels on economic growth: time-series evidence from Guatemala


  • Loening, Josef
  • Rao, B. Bhaskara
  • Singh, Rup


This paper examines the determinants of economic growth in Guatemala, with a particular focus on the schooling level. Results based on an error-correction methodology show a better educated labour force has a positive and significant impact on economic growth. Consistent with micro evidence for Guatemala, primary education is more important than secondary and tertiary education. These findings are robust while changing the conditioning variables, controlling for data issues and endogeneity. Due to social and political conflict, the average per capita growth rate in Guatemala has been low.

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  • Loening, Josef & Rao, B. Bhaskara & Singh, Rup, 2010. "Effects of schooling levels on economic growth: time-series evidence from Guatemala," MPRA Paper 25105, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Sep 2010.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:25105

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrea Bassanini & Stefano Scarpetta, 2001. "Does Human Capital Matter for Growth in OECD Countries?: Evidence from Pooled Mean-Group Estimates," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 282, OECD Publishing.
    2. World Bank, 2003. "Poverty in Guatemala," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14862, The World Bank.
    3. Barbara Sianesi & John Van Reenen, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 157-200, April.
    4. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
    5. Daniel Cohen & Marcelo Soto, 2007. "Growth and human capital: good data, good results," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 51-76, March.
    6. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2001. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 541-563, July.
    7. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    8. Petrakis, P. E. & Stamatakis, D., 2002. "Growth and educational levels: a comparative analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 513-521, October.
    9. Chris Papageorgiou, 2003. "Distinguishing Between the Effects of Primary and Post-primary Education on Economic Growth," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 622-635, November.
    10. B. Bhaskara Rao & Rup Singh & Saten Kumar, 2010. "Do we need time series econometrics?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(7), pages 695-697.
    11. Reitschuler, Gerhard & Loening, Josef L., 2005. "Modeling the Defense-Growth Nexus in Guatemala," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 513-526, March.
    12. Funkhouser, Edward, 1997. "Demand-Side and Supply-Side Explanations for Barriers to Labor Market Mobility in Developing Countries: The Case of Guatemala," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 341-366, January.
    13. Nehru, Vikram & Dhareshwar, Ashok & DEC, 1994. "New estimates of total factor productivity growth for developing and industrial countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1313, The World Bank.
    14. Josef L. Loening, 2004. "Time series evidence on education and growth: the case of Guatemala, 1951-2002," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 19(2), pages 3-40, December.
    15. Armando Méndez Morales, 1998. "Determinants of Growth in an Error; Correction Model for El Salvador," IMF Working Papers 98/104, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Lee, Jong-Wha, 1995. "Capital goods imports and long-run growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 91-110, October.
    17. Gemmell, Norman, 1996. "Evaluating the Impacts of Human Capital Stocks and Accumulation on Economic Growth: Some New Evidence," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(1), pages 9-28, February.
    18. Larraín B., Felipe, 2006. "Guatemala: Los desafíos del crecimiento," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(291), pages 481-538, julio-sep.
    19. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana & Morán, Hilcías E., 2011. "The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 41-61, January.
    20. Peter J. Klenow & Mark Bils, 2000. "Does Schooling Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1160-1183, December.
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    More about this item


    Economic growth; education; error-correction model; Guatemala;

    JEL classification:

    • N16 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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