IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Whither the Indian Federation? Regional Disparities and Economic Reforms


  • Alessandrini, Michele
  • Buccellato, Tullio
  • Scaramozzino, Pasquale


The last two decades have seen increased divergence among the states of the Indian Federation in terms of their economic performance. This paper uses spatial econometric methods to examine how the regional pattern of growth has been influenced by the economic reforms implemented since the early 1990s. The process of liberalization and increased openness to international markets has imparted a clear spatial connotation to the gap dividing low and fast growing states. Winners were those states that benefited the most from the recent process of reform and liberalization, thanks also to their geographical advantage and to the presence of a developed service sector. Losers were instead the landlocked and highly populated states with a predominant agricultural sector and a low level of innovation.

Suggested Citation

  • Alessandrini, Michele & Buccellato, Tullio & Scaramozzino, Pasquale, 2008. "Whither the Indian Federation? Regional Disparities and Economic Reforms," MPRA Paper 23416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:23416

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kaushik Basu & Annemie Maertens, 2007. "The pattern and causes of economic growth in India," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 143-167, Summer.
    2. R. Nagaraj & A. Varoudakis & M.-A. Véganzonès, 2000. "Long-run growth trends and convergence across Indian States," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(1), pages 45-70.
    3. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler & Jonathan Temple, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Papers 2001-W21, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    4. Quah, Danny T, 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1045-1055, July.
    5. Gaurav Datt & Martin Ravallion, 2002. "Is India's Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(3), pages 89-108, Summer.
    6. Eric V. Edmonds & Nina Pavcnik & Petia Topalova, 2010. "Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Indian Tariff Reform," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(4), pages 42-75, October.
    7. repec:spr:adspsc:978-3-540-32305-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kochhar, Kalpana & Kumar, Utsav & Rajan, Raghuram & Subramanian, Arvind & Tokatlidis, Ioannis, 2006. "India's pattern of development: What happened, what follows?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(5), pages 981-1019, July.
    9. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
    10. M. Govinda Rao & Nirvikar Singh, 2007. "The Political Economy of India's Fiscal Federal System and its Reform," Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(1), pages 26-44, Winter.
    11. Prabhu Pingali & Yasmeen Khwaja, 2004. "Globalization of Indian Diets and the Transformation of Food Supply Systems," Working Papers 04-05, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    12. Gang, Ira N. & Sen, Kunal & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2002. "Caste, Ethnicity and Poverty in Rural India," IZA Discussion Papers 629, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
    14. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    15. Timothy Besley & Robin Burgess, 2000. "Land Reform, Poverty Reduction, and Growth: Evidence from India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(2), pages 389-430.
    16. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Ananthi Ramiah & Nirupam Bajpai, 2002. "Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India," CID Working Papers 88, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    17. Michele Alessandrini & Bassam Fattouh & Pasquale Scaramozzino, 2007. "The changing pattern of foreign trade specialization in Indian manufacturing," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 270-291, Summer.
    18. Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian, 2005. "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 52(2), pages 193-228, September.
    19. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay, 2011. "Rich States, Poor States: Convergence And Polarisation In India," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 58(3), pages 414-436, July.
    20. Danny Quah, 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," CEP Discussion Papers dp0280, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    21. Petia Topalova & Amit Khandelwal, 2011. "Trade Liberalization and Firm Productivity: The Case of India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(3), pages 995-1009, August.
    22. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Nirupam Bajpai & Ananthi Ramiah, 2002. "Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 1(3), pages 32-62.
    23. Swan, Trevor W, 2002. "Economic Growth," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 78(243), pages 375-380, December.
    24. Shashanka Bhide & Rajesh Chadha & Kaliappa Kalirajan, 2005. "Growth interdependence among Indian states: an exploration," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 12(2), pages 59-80, December.
    25. Sophie Chauvin & Françoise Lemoine, 2003. "L'Inde parie sur les niches technologiques," La Lettre du CEPII, CEPII research center, issue 221.
    26. Caselli, Francesco & Esquivel, Gerardo & Lefort, Fernando, 1996. "Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 363-389, September.
    27. Ajit Singh & Sukti Dasgupta, 2005. "Will services be the new engine of economic growth in India?," Working Papers wp310, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    28. Giuseppe Arbia & Roberto Basile & Gianfranco Piras, 2005. "Using Spatial Panel Data in Modelling Regional Growth and Convergence," ISAE Working Papers 55, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
    29. Tullio Buccellato, 2007. "Convergence across Russian regions: a spatial econometrics approach," UCL SSEES Economics and Business working paper series 72, UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES).
    30. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    31. Nazrul Islam, 1995. "Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1127-1170.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Antra Bhatt & Pasquale Scaramozzino, 2013. "Federal Transfers and Fiscal Discipline in India: An Empirical Evaluation," CEIS Research Paper 271, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 17 Apr 2013.

    More about this item


    India; Regional Convergence; Spatial Econometrics;

    JEL classification:

    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:23416. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.