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Smooth Breaks and Nonlinear Mean Reversion: Post-Bretton Woods Real Exchange Rates

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  • Dimitris, Christopoulos
  • Miguel, Leon-Ledesma

Abstract

The recent literature on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) has emphasized the role of two phenomena that may lead to the rejection of the PPP hypothesis: structural breaks and nonlinear adjustment induced by transaction costs. These two hypotheses are analyzed separately in the literature. We develop tests for unit roots that account jointly for structural breaks and nonlinear adjustment. Structural breaks are modeled by means of a Fourier function that allows for infrequent smooth temporary mean changes and is hence compatible with long-run PPP. Nonlinear adjustment is modeled by means of an ESTAR model. Our tests present good finite sample properties. The tests are applied to a set of 15 OECD countries’ RERs and are able to reject the null of a unit root in 14 cases. The breaks are usually associated with the great appreciation and later depreciation of the dollar in the 1980s and the ESTAR adjustment appears to play an important role.

Suggested Citation

  • Dimitris, Christopoulos & Miguel, Leon-Ledesma, 2009. "Smooth Breaks and Nonlinear Mean Reversion: Post-Bretton Woods Real Exchange Rates," MPRA Paper 22553, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:22553
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    Cited by:

    1. Hepsag, Aycan, 2017. "A unit root test based on smooth transitions and nonlinear adjustment," MPRA Paper 81788, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-17-00335 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Güriş, Burak, 2017. "A Flexible Fourier Form Nonlinear Unit Root Test Based on ESTAR Model," MPRA Paper 83472, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Aloy, Marcel & Boutahar, Mohamed & Gente, Karine & Péguin-Feissolle, Anne, 2011. "Purchasing power parity and the long memory properties of real exchange rates: Does one size fit all?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1279-1290, May.
    5. Kutan, Ali M. & Zhou, Su, 2015. "PPP may hold better than you think: Smooth breaks and non-linear mean reversion in real effective exchange rates," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 358-366.
    6. Serkan TAŞTAN, 2015. "Sustainability of balancing item of balance of payment for OECD countries: evidence from Fourier Unit Root Tests," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(604), A), pages 93-100, Autumn.
    7. repec:spr:empeco:v:53:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s00181-016-1171-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Hepsag, Aycan, 2017. "New unit root tests with two smooth breaks and nonlinear adjustment," MPRA Paper 83353, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Snaith, Stuart, 2012. "The PPP debate: Multiple breaks and cross-sectional dependence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 342-344.
    10. Mulatu F. Zehirun & Marthinus C. Breitenbach & Francis M. Kemegue, 2015. "Assessment of Monetary Union in SADC: Evidence from Cointegration and Panel Unit Root Tests," Working Papers 201502, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    11. Tsong, Ching-Chuan & Wu, Chien-Wei & Chiu, Hsien-Hung & Lee, Cheng-Feng, 2013. "Covariate unit root tests under structural change and asymmetric STAR dynamics," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 101-112.
    12. He, Huizhen & Ranjbar, Omid & Chang, Tsangyao, 2013. "Purchasing power parity in transition countries: Old wine with new bottle," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 24-32.
    13. Lau, Chi Keung Marco & Chau, Frankie & Deesomsak, Rataporn, 2011. "Panel Unit Root Test with Nonlinear Mean Reversion and Smooth Breaks," MPRA Paper 53602, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Cuestas Juan Carlos & Gil-Alana Luis Alberiko, 2016. "Testing for long memory in the presence of non-linear deterministic trends with Chebyshev polynomials," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 20(1), pages 57-74, February.
    15. Dick, Christian D. & MacDonald, Ronald & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2015. "Exchange rate forecasts and expected fundamentals," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 235-256.
    16. Güriş, Burak, 2017. "A New Nonlinear Unit Root Test with Fourier Function," MPRA Paper 82260, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Lau, Chi Keung Marco & Suvankulov, Farrukh & Su, Yongyang & Chau, Frankie, 2012. "Some cautions on the use of nonlinear panel unit root tests: Evidence from a modified series-specific non-linear panel unit-root test," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 810-816.
    18. Frenkel Michael & Koske Isabell, 2012. "Are the Real Exchange Rates of the New EU Member Countries in Line with Fundamentals? – Implications of the NATREX Approach," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 232(2), pages 129-145, April.
    19. Abdullah Gulcu & Dilem Yildirim, 2018. "Smooth Breaks And Nonlinear Mean Reversion In Real Interest Parity: Evidence From East Asian Countries," ERC Working Papers 1804, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Feb 2018.
    20. Chang, Tsangyao & Ranjbar, Omid & Tang, D.P., 2013. "Revisiting the mean reversion of inflation rates for 22 OECD countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 245-252.
    21. Banu Kurtaran, 2015. "Re-examining the PPP Hypothesis via Nonlinearity and Smooth Breaks," Econometrics Letters, Bilimsel Mektuplar Organizasyonu (Scientific letters), vol. 2(1), pages 1-21.
    22. repec:agr:journl:v:3(604):y:2015:i:3(604):p:93-100 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Omay, Tolga & Hasanov, Mubariz & Emirmahmutoglu, Furkan, 2014. "Structural Break, Nonlinearity, and Asymmetry: A re-examination of PPP proposition," MPRA Paper 62335, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    24. Dick, Christian D. & MacDonald, Ronald & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2011. "Individual exchange rate forecasts and expected fundamentals," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-062, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fourier model; ESTAR; nonlinear adjustment; PPP;

    JEL classification:

    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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