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Social inclusion and financial inclusion: international evidence


  • Ozili, Peterson K


This paper investigates the association between social inclusion and financial inclusion. Social inclusion and financial inclusion are two major development policy agenda in many countries, and the association between them has received little attention in the policy and academic literature. Using correlation analysis, the findings reveal a positive and significant correlation between social inclusion and financial inclusion for Asian countries, Middle Eastern countries and African countries while the correlation between social inclusion and financial inclusion is negative for European countries. The findings also show that European and Asian economies experience higher levels of social inclusion and account ownership in a formal financial institution while African countries and Middle Eastern countries experience lower levels of social inclusion and account ownership. The implication of the findings is that some socially inclusive societies tend to enjoy greater financial inclusion while other socially inclusive societies may experience lower financial inclusion. The study provides insights for researchers, decision makers, and practitioners to understand the association between financial and social inclusion.

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  • Ozili, Peterson K, 2020. "Social inclusion and financial inclusion: international evidence," MPRA Paper 101811, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:101811

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Allen, Franklin & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2016. "The foundations of financial inclusion: Understanding ownership and use of formal accounts," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 1-30.
    2. Martin Brown & Benjamin Guin & Karolin Kirschenmann, 2016. "Microfinance Banks and Financial Inclusion," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 20(3), pages 907-946.
    3. Ozili, Peterson K, 2019. "Financial Stability: Does Social Activism Matter?," MPRA Paper 92192, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    11. David Tuesta & Gloria Sorensen & Adriana Haring & Noelia Camara, 2015. "Financial inclusion and its determinants: the case of Argentina," Working Papers 1503, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
    12. Michael Chibba, 2009. "Financial Inclusion, Poverty Reduction and the Millennium Development Goals," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 21(2), pages 213-230, April.
    13. Therese Wilson, 2012. "Supporting Social Enterprises to Support Vulnerable Consumers: The Example of Community Development Finance Institutions and Financial Exclusion," Journal of Consumer Policy, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 197-213, June.
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    15. Peterson K. Ozili, 2018. "Impact of digital finance on financial inclusion and stability," Borsa Istanbul Review, Research and Business Development Department, Borsa Istanbul, vol. 18(4), pages 329-340, December.
    16. Aguila, Emma & Angrisani, Marco & Blanco, Luisa R., 2016. "Ownership of a bank account and health of older Hispanics," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 144(C), pages 41-44.
    17. Ozili, Peterson Kitakogelu, 2018. "Impact of Digital Finance on Financial Inclusion and Stability," MPRA Paper 84771, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Beate Littig & Erich Griessler, 2005. "Social sustainability: a catchword between political pragmatism and social theory," International Journal of Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 8(1/2), pages 65-79.
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    Cited by:

    1. Adriana Kocornik-Mina & Ramon Bastida-Vialcanet & Marcos Eguiguren Huerta, 2021. "Social Impact of Value-Based Banking: Best Practises and a Continuity Framework," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(14), pages 1-40, July.
    2. Kanika Goel & Wasana Bandara & Guy Gable, 2023. "Banking the Unbanked: Conceptualizing Success of the Business Correspondent Model," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 1953-1984, October.
    3. Ozili, Peterson K, 2023. "Corporate governance and financial inclusion," MPRA Paper 118799, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Favourate Y. Mpofu, 2022. "Taxation of the Digital Economy and Direct Digital Service Taxes: Opportunities, Challenges, and Implications for African Countries," Economies, MDPI, vol. 10(9), pages 1-28, September.
    5. Salman Mahmood & Wen Shuhui & Shoaib Aslam & Tanveer Ahmed, 2023. "Financial Inclusion: Does it matter in Alleviating Poverty in Pakistan," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 169(3), pages 1125-1146, October.
    6. Kosmas Njanike & Raphael T. Mpofu, 2024. "Factors Influencing Financial Inclusion for Social Inclusion in Selected African Countries," Insight on Africa, , vol. 16(1), pages 93-112, January.
    7. Luiz Antonio Joia & Joaquim Pedro Vasconcelos Cordeiro, 2021. "Unlocking the Potential of Fintechs for Financial Inclusion: A Delphi-Based Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(21), pages 1-19, October.
    8. Ozili, Peterson K, 2020. "Financial inclusion and Fintech during COVID-19 crisis: Policy solutions," MPRA Paper 111219, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item


    financial inclusion; social inclusion; sustainability; access to finance; account ownership;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O2 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy

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    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


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