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He Taught, She Taught: The effect of teaching style, academic credentials, bias awareness and academic discipline on gender bias in teaching evaluations


  • Nigel Burnell

    (University of Surrey)

  • Irina Cojuharenco

    (University of Surrey)

  • Zahra Murad

    (University of Portsmouth)


Gender bias in teaching evaluations leads to unfair decisions during academics􏰀 careers. In four controlled experiments, we examine the role of academics􏰀 teaching style, academic credentials, academic discipline and bias awareness on gender bias in teaching evaluations. In Study 1, we test competing hypotheses regarding the effect of teaching style on gender bias. We find that a high warmth teaching style increases female academics􏰀 perceived warmth, but decreases their perceived competence, so gender bias in evaluations persists. In Study 2, we find that gender bias disappears for academic with senior credentials. Additionally, we find no evidence of less biased evaluations by those who anticipate gender bias. In Study 3 and Study 4, we test the robustness of our results in a different academic discipline and using different evaluation measures. In these latter studies, we do not find any evidence of gender bias in evaluations. We discuss our findings in the higher education context and make recommendations to mitigate gender bias in teaching evaluations.

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  • Nigel Burnell & Irina Cojuharenco & Zahra Murad, 2020. "He Taught, She Taught: The effect of teaching style, academic credentials, bias awareness and academic discipline on gender bias in teaching evaluations," Working Papers in Economics & Finance 2020-05, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth Business School, Economics and Finance Subject Group.
  • Handle: RePEc:pbs:ecofin:2020-05

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Scott E. Carrell & Marianne E. Page & James E. West, 2010. "Sex and Science: How Professor Gender Perpetuates the Gender Gap," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 125(3), pages 1101-1144.
    2. Darby, Michael R & Karni, Edi, 1973. "Free Competition and the Optimal Amount of Fraud," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 67-88, April.
    3. Jonathan Guryan & Kerwin Kofi Charles, 2013. "Taste‐based or Statistical Discrimination: The Economics of Discrimination Returns to its Roots," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 123(11), pages 417-432, November.
    4. Boring, Anne, 2017. "Gender biases in student evaluations of teaching," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 27-41.
    5. Eric P. Bettinger & Bridget Terry Long, 2005. "Do Faculty Serve as Role Models? The Impact of Instructor Gender on Female Students," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 152-157, May.
    6. Berna Tari Kasnakoglu, 2016. "Antecedents and consequences of co-creation in credence-based service contexts," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1-2), pages 1-20, January.
    7. Neilson, William & Ying, Shanshan, 2016. "From taste-based to statistical discrimination," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 116-128.
    8. Charles Wild & Daniel Berger, 2016. "The proposed Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) for UK Universities," Proceedings of International Academic Conferences 3505701, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    9. J. Jobu Babin, 2019. "Detecting Group Gender Stereotypes: Opinion-mining vs. Incentivized Coordination Games," Journal of Economic Insight (formerly the Journal of Economics (MVEA)), Missouri Valley Economic Association, vol. 45(1), pages 21-42.
    10. Friederike Mengel & Jan Sauermann & Ulf Zölitz, 2019. "Gender Bias in Teaching Evaluations," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 17(2), pages 535-566.
    11. Charles Wild & Daniel Berger, 2016. "The proposed Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) for UK Universities," International Journal of Teaching and Education, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, vol. 4(3), pages 33-50, September.
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    Gender bias; teaching evaluations; teaching style; academic credentials; bias awareness;

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