Efficiency and the Bear: Short Sales and Markets around the World
We analyze cross-sectional and time series information from forty-seven equity markets around the world, to consider whether short-sales restrictions affect the efficiency of the market, and the distributional characteristics of returns to individual stocks and market indices. Using the approach developed in Morck et.al. (2000) we find significantly more cross-sectional variation in equity returns in markets where short selling is feasible and practiced, controlling for a host of other factors. This evidence is consistent with more efficient price discovery at the individual security level. A common conjecture by regulators is that short-selling restrictions can reduce the relative severity of a market panic. We test this conjecture by examining the skewness of market returns. We find that in markets where short selling is either prohibited or not practiced, returns display significantly less negative skewness, and the frequency of extreme negative returns is lower. On the other hand, the overall volatility of individual returns and market returns is higher.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Goetzmann, William and Arturo Bris. "Efficiency and the Bear: Short Sales and Markets around the World." The Journal of Finance 62, 3 (June 2007): 1029-1079|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The arbitrage theory of capital asset pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 341-360, December.
- J. Bradford De Long & Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers & Robert J. Waldmann, .
"Noise Trader Risk in Financial Markets,"
J. Bradford De Long's Working Papers
_124, University of California at Berkeley, Economics Department.
- Chen Zhiwu, 1995. "Financial Innovation and Arbitrage Pricing in Frictional Economies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 117-135, February.
- Duffie, Darrell & Garleanu, Nicolae & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2002. "Securities lending, shorting, and pricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 307-339.
- Lars Peter Hansen & Ravi Jagannathan, 1994.
"Assessing specification errors in stochastic discount factor models,"
167, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Hansen, Lars Peter & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1997. " Assessing Specification Errors in Stochastic Discount Factor Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 557-90, June.
- Lars Peter Hansen & Ravi Jagannathan, 1994. "Assessing Specification Errors in Stochastic Discount Factor Models," NBER Technical Working Papers 0153, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Li, Lianfa & Fleisher, Belton M., 2004. "Heterogeneous expectations and stock prices in segmented markets: application to Chinese firms," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 521-538, September.
- Antonio E. Bernardo & Ivo Welch, 2004. "Liquidity and Financial Market Runs," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 135-158.
- Eli Ofek & Matthew Richardson, 2003. "DotCom Mania: The Rise and Fall of Internet Stock Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1113-1138, 06.
- Hua He and David M. Modest., 1992.
"Market Frictions and Consumption-Based Asset Pricing,"
Research Program in Finance Working Papers
RPF-223, University of California at Berkeley.
- He, Hua & Modest, David M, 1995. "Market Frictions and Consumption-Based Asset Pricing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(1), pages 94-117, February.
- Klemkosky, Robert C & Resnick, Bruce G, 1979. "Put-Call Parity and Market Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(5), pages 1141-55, December.
- Elroy Dimson and Paul Marsh., 1981.
"The Stability of UK Risk Measures and the Problem of Thin Trading,"
Research Program in Finance Working Papers
120, University of California at Berkeley.
- Dimson, E & Marsh, P R, 1983. " The Stability of UK Risk Measures and the Problem of Thin Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 753-83, June.
- Poitras, Geoffrey, 2002. "Short sales restrictions, dilution and the pricing of rights issues on the Singapore Stock Exchange," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 141-162, April.
- Zhiwu Chen, 2001. "Viable Costs and Equilibrium Prices in Frictional Securities Markets," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 2(2), pages 297-323, November.
- Ofek, Eli & Richardson, Matthew & Whitelaw, Robert F., 2004. "Limited arbitrage and short sales restrictions: evidence from the options markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 305-342, November.
- Harrison Hong & Jeremy C. Stein, 2003. "Differences of Opinion, Short-Sales Constraints, and Market Crashes," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 487-525.
- D'Avolio, Gene, 2002. "The market for borrowing stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 271-306.
- Geczy, Christopher C. & Musto, David K. & Reed, Adam V., 2002. "Stocks are special too: an analysis of the equity lending market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 241-269.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9466. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.