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The Founding of the Federal Reserve, the Great Depression and the Evolution of the U.S. Interbank Network

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  • Matthew S. Jaremski
  • David C. Wheelock

Abstract

Financial network structure is an important determinant of systemic risk. This paper examines how the U.S. interbank network evolved over a long and important period that included two key events: the founding of the Federal Reserve and the Great Depression. Banks established connections to correspondents that joined the Federal Reserve in cities with Fed offices, initially reducing overall network concentration. The network became even more focused on Fed cities during the Depression, as survival rates were higher for banks with more existing connections to Fed cities, and as survivors established new connections to those cities over time.

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  • Matthew S. Jaremski & David C. Wheelock, 2019. "The Founding of the Federal Reserve, the Great Depression and the Evolution of the U.S. Interbank Network," NBER Working Papers 26034, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26034
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    Cited by:

    1. Calomiris, Charles W. & Jaremski, Matthew & Wheelock, David C., 2022. "Interbank connections, contagion and bank distress in the Great Depression✰," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    2. Matthew Jaremski & David C. Wheelock, 2022. "Interbank Networks and the Interregional Transmission of Financial Crises: Evidence from the Panic of 1907," Working Papers 2022-020, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised Sep 2023.
    3. Haelim Anderson & Guillermo Ordonez & Selman Erol, 2019. "Interbank Networks in the Shadows of the Federal Reserve Act," 2019 Meeting Papers 1285, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. Charles M. Kahn & Stephen F. Quinn & William Roberds, 2023. "The Fed and Its Shadow: A Historical View," Policy Hub, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, vol. 2023(6), pages 1-32, October.
    5. Charles W. Calomiris & Matthew Jaremski & David C. Wheelock, 2019. "Interbank Connections, Contagion and Bank Distress in the Great Depression," Working Papers 2019-001, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    6. Calomiris, Charles W. & Mason, Joseph R. & Wheelock, David C., 2023. "Did doubling reserve requirements cause the 1937–38 recession? New evidence on the impact of reserve requirements on bank reserve demand and lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 56(C).
    7. Nicholas Garvin & David W Hughes & José-Luis Peydró, 2021. "The Role of Collateral in Borrowing," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2021-01, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    8. Ladley, Daniel & Rousseau, Peter L., 2023. "Panic and propagation in 1873: A network analytic approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 151(C).
    9. Jenter, Dirk & Aldunate, Felipe & Korteweg, Arthur & Koudijs, Peter, 2021. "Shareholder Liability and Bank Failure," CEPR Discussion Papers 16309, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Matthew Jaremski & David C. Wheelock, 2023. "Theodore Roosevelt, the Election of 1912, and the Founding of the Federal Reserve," Working Papers 2023-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised Mar 2024.
    11. Sanjiv R. Das & Kris James Mitchener & Angela Vossmeyer, 2022. "Bank Regulation, Network Topology, and Systemic Risk: Evidence from the Great Depression," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 54(5), pages 1261-1312, August.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation
    • N22 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-

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