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Vertical and Horizontal Redistributions from a Carbon Tax and Rebate

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  • Julie Anne Cronin
  • Don Fullerton
  • Steven E. Sexton

Abstract

Because electricity is a higher fraction of spending for those with low income, carbon taxes are believed to be regressive. Many argue, however, that their revenues can be used to offset the regressivity. We assess these claims by employing data on 322,000 families in the U.S. Treasury’s Distribution Model to study vertical redistributions between rich and poor, as well as horizontal redistributions among families with common incomes but heterogeneous energy intensity of consumption (different home heating and cooling demands). Accounting for the statutory indexing of transfers, and measuring impacts on annual consumption as a proxy for permanent income, we find that the carbon tax burden is progressive, rising across deciles as a fraction of consumption. The rebate of revenue via transfers makes it even more progressive. In every decile, the standard deviation of the change in consumption as a fraction of consumption varies around 1% or 2% and is larger than the average burden (about 0.7%). When existing transfer programs are used to rebate revenue, the tax and rebate together increase that variation to more than 3% within each decile. The average family in the poorest decile gets a net tax cut of about 1% of consumption, but 44% of them get a net tax increase. Relative to no rebate, every type of rebate we consider increases this variation within most deciles.

Suggested Citation

  • Julie Anne Cronin & Don Fullerton & Steven E. Sexton, 2017. "Vertical and Horizontal Redistributions from a Carbon Tax and Rebate," NBER Working Papers 23250, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:23250
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    Cited by:

    1. Hasan, Syed Abul & Mozumder, Pallab, 2017. "Income and energy use in Bangladesh: A household level analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 115-126.
    2. Audrey Berry, 2018. "Compensating households from carbon tax regressivity and fuel poverty: a microsimulation study," CIRED Working Papers hal-01691088, HAL.
    3. Don Fullerton & Erich Muehlegger, 2017. "Who Bears the Economic Costs of Environmental Regulations?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6596, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. Audrey Berry, 2017. "Compensating households from carbon tax regressivity and fuel poverty: a microsimulation study," Policy Papers 2017.08, FAERE - French Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

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