Mortgage Default, Foreclosure, and Bankruptcy
In this paper we examine the relationship between homeowners' bankruptcy decisions and their mortgage default decisions and the relationship between homeowners' bankruptcy decisions and lenders' decisions to foreclose. In theory, both relationships could be either substitutes or complements. Bankruptcy and default tend to be substitutes because homeowners' budgets are limited and, if they spend less on payments to unsecured lenders, then they have more money to pay their mortgages. But bankruptcy and default may also be complements if homeowners use bankruptcy to reduce the cost of defaulting on their mortgages. Bankruptcy and foreclosure similarly may be either substitutes or complements. In fact we show that both relationships are complementary, although homeowners reacted to the 2005 bankruptcy reform by treating them as substitutes. We also show that bankruptcies, defaults and foreclosures all tend to spread, i.e., higher bankruptcy rates in the neighborhood raise homeowners' probability of filing, higher default rates raise homeowners' probability of defaulting, and higher foreclosure rates raise homeowners' probability of foreclosure. We provide estimates of the size of these effects. The paper argues that these relationships have important public policy implications. In particular, foreclosures have very high social costs, and some of these costs are external to both borrowers and lenders. As a result, there is a social gain from discouraging bankruptcies, since fewer bankruptcies mean fewer defaults and foreclosures. We show that these considerations shift optimal bankruptcy law in a pro-creditor direction, because pro-creditor bankruptcy policies reduce the number of filings and therefore reduce foreclosures. But the same considerations shift other policies that affect bankruptcy in a pro-debtor direction. This is because pro-debtor shifts in, for example, wage garnishment policy reduce the number of bankruptcy filings and therefore reduce foreclosures.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Manuel Adelino & Kristopher Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2009.
"Why don't lenders renegotiate more home mortgages?: redefaults, self-cures, and securitization,"
Public Policy Discussion Paper
09-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Adelino, Manuel & Gerardi, Kristopher & Willen, Paul S., 2013. "Why don't Lenders renegotiate more home mortgages? Redefaults, self-cures and securitization," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(7), pages 835-853.
- Manuel Adelino & Kristopher Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2009. "Why Don't Lenders Renegotiate More Home Mortgages? Redefaults, Self-Cures and Securitization," NBER Working Papers 15159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Manuel Adelino & Kristopher Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2009. "Why don't lenders renegotiate more home mortgages? redefaults, self-cures, and securitization," Working Paper 2009-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Hülya Eraslan & Wenli Li & Pierre-Daniel G. Sarte, 2007.
"The anatomy of U.S. personal bankruptcy under Chapter 13,"
07-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Hülya Eraslan & Wenli Li & Pierre-Daniel Sarte, 2007. "The anatomy of U.S. personal bankruptcy under Chapter 13," Working Papers 07-31, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Igor Livshits & James MacGee & Michele Tertilt, 2005.
"Consumer Bankruptcy: A Fresh Start,"
04-011, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Piskorski, Tomasz & Seru, Amit & Vig, Vikrant, 2010.
"Securitization and distressed loan renegotiation: Evidence from the subprime mortgage crisis,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 369-397, September.
- Vikrant Vig & Amit Seru & Tomasz Piskorski, 2009. "Securitization and Distressed Loan Renegotiation: Evidence from the Subprime Mortgage Crisis," 2009 Meeting Papers 1169, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Michelle J. White, 2007. "Bankruptcy Reform and Credit Cards," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(4), pages 175-200, Fall.
- Gropp, Reint & Scholz, John Karl & White, Michelle J, 1997.
"Personal Bankruptcy and Credit Supply and Demand,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 112(1), pages 217-51, February.
- Larry Cordell & Karen Dynan & Andreas Lehnert & Nellie Liang & Eileen Mauskopf, 2008. "The incentives of mortgage servicers: myths and realities," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-46, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Lin, Emily Y. & White, Michelle J., 2001. "Bankruptcy and the Market for Mortgage and Home Improvement Loans," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 138-162, July.
- Richard K. Green & Michelle J. White, 1994.
"Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children,"
University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State
93, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- Green, Richard K. & White, Michelle J., 1997. "Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 441-461, May.
- Richard K. Green & Michelle J. White, 1994. "Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 94-05, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
- Giglio, Stefano & Pathak, Parag & Campbell, John Y., 2011.
"Forced Sales and House Prices,"
9887623, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Michelle J. White, 2007. "Bankruptcy Reform and Credit Cards," NBER Working Papers 13265, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Donald P. Morgan & Benjamin Iverson & Matthew Botsch, 2008. "Seismic effects of the bankruptcy reform," Staff Reports 358, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Michelle J. White & Ning Zhu, 2010.
"Saving Your Home in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy,"
The Journal of Legal Studies,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(1), pages 33-61, 01.
- Scott Fay & Erik Hurst & Michelle J. White, 2002. "The Household Bankruptcy Decision," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(3), pages 706-718, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15472. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.