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Which Firms Use Universities As Cooperation Partners? – The Comparative View In Europe

  • Kärt Rõigas
  • Marge Seppo
  • Urmas Varblane
  • Pierre Mohnen

This paper presents an econometric analysis of the characteristics of firm’s cooperating with universities using Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data for 14 European countries. Our model incorporates three groups of variables which could be related to the probability to cooperate with universities. The first group of variables is related to the size of a firm, the second group measures different innovation activities and the third group describes the internationalisation of firms. In addition, we test for the number of linkages, public financing and the sector of the firm. In order to provide a comparative view across the European countries we use the CIS for the period 2006–2008, where we have data for 14 countries. We use a standard logit model for firm level data, with a dependent variable indicating whether a firm used a university as a cooperation partner or not. We estimate two separate models for cooperating with home and with foreign universities. Our main findings reveal that despite the origin of the university, firms must have a certain level of capabilities to have universities as cooperation partners – conducting internal or external R&D is a significant factor characterising the cooperation with universities. Investments into machinery and equipment as one of the innovative activities are hindering the cooperation with universities. Significant differences between firms that cooperate with home universities, compared to those cooperating with foreign universities exist. Firms cooperating with foreign universities are characterised by a higher level of internationalisation, measured by an export and foreign ownership dummy.

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Paper provided by Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia) in its series University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series with number 93.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 2014
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mtk:febawb:93
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  1. Henri Capron & Michele Cincera, 2003. "Industry-university S&T transfers: what can we learn from Belgian CIS-2 data?," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 46(3), pages 59-86.
  2. Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin A & Diederen, Bert & Lokshin, Boris & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2003. "Heterogeneity in R&D Cooperation Strategies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4021, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Miotti, Luis & Sachwald, Frederique, 2003. "Co-operative R&D: why and with whom?: An integrated framework of analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1481-1499, September.
  4. Mohnen Pierre & Hoareau Cathy, 2002. "What type of enterprise forges close links with universities and government labs? Evidence from CIS2," Research Memorandum 009, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  5. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
  6. Eom, Boo-Young & Lee, Keun, 2010. "Determinants of industry-academy linkages and, their impact on firm performance: The case of Korea as a latecomer in knowledge industrialization," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 625-639, June.
  7. Fontana, Roberto & Geuna, Aldo & Matt, Mireille, 2006. "Factors affecting university-industry R&D projects: The importance of searching, screening and signalling," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 309-323, March.
  8. Marge Seppo & Kärt Rõigas & Urmas Varblane, 2014. "Governmental Support Measures for University–Industry Cooperation—Comparative View in Europe," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 388-408, June.
  9. Doris Schartinger, 2001. "Benchmarking industry—science relations: the role of framework conditions," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(4), pages 247-258, August.
  10. Laursen, Keld & Salter, Ammon, 2004. "Searching high and low: what types of firms use universities as a source of innovation?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1201-1215, October.
  11. Santoro, Michael D. & Chakrabarti, Alok K., 2002. "Firm size and technology centrality in industry-university interactions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1163-1180, September.
  12. Tether, Bruce S., 2002. "Who co-operates for innovation, and why: An empirical analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 947-967, August.
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