Determinants of industry-academy linkages and, their impact on firm performance: The case of Korea as a latecomer in knowledge industrialization
This paper utilizes the Korea Innovation Survey data to identify the determinants of industry-university and industry-government research institute (IUG) cooperation, and its impact on firm performance. First, we find that among the determinants of IUG cooperation, traditional firm characteristic variables of size and R&D intensity are not significant, while participation in national R&D project turns out be most significant and robust in both cooperation modes. This is in contrast to the results from the cases in European countries and reflects the significance of government policies in promoting IUG cooperation in latecomer economies. Second, with regard to the impact of IUG cooperation, we conspicuously find no significant impact on the innovation probability of firms when we control the possible endogeneity, such that already innovative firms would participate more at such cooperation modes. This implies that the IUG cooperation cannot guarantee the success of a firm in technological innovation. Rather, it may have an influence on the selection or direction of the research projects of a firm. When we limited the analysis to innovative firms, we do find a positive impact of the IUG cooperation on patents generated from new product innovation but find none in terms of volume of sales or labor productivity. These results seem to reflect the still transitional nature of the national innovation system (NIS) and knowledge industrialization in Korea.
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