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Formal and informal external linkages and firms' innovative strategies. A cross-country comparison

Author

Listed:
  • Bodas Freitas, Isabel Maria

    () (Grenoble Ecole de Management, and DISPEA)

  • Clausen, Tommy

    () (University of Oslo, and Nordland Research Institute)

  • Fontana, Roberto

    () (University of Pavia, and CESPRI, Bocconi University)

  • Verspagen, Bart

    () (Maastricht University, and UNU-MERIT)

Abstract

Firms increasingly rely upon external actors for their innovation process. Interaction with these actors may occur formally (i.e. through a collaboration agreement) or informally (i.e. external actors acts as sources of knowledge). This paper analyses the reasons why firms consider it to be important to develop formal and informal external linkages in the innovation process by looking at the role played by firms' innovative strategies and by taking into account that a complementarity or substitutive relationship might exist between formal and informal linkages. Data come from the Third Community Innovation Survey (CIS 3), where we have access to firm level micro-data from Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK.

Suggested Citation

  • Bodas Freitas, Isabel Maria & Clausen, Tommy & Fontana, Roberto & Verspagen, Bart, 2008. "Formal and informal external linkages and firms' innovative strategies. A cross-country comparison," MERIT Working Papers 065, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  • Handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2008065
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Waheed, Abdul, 2011. "Size, competition, and innovative activities: a developing world perspective," MERIT Working Papers 052, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    2. Abiodun A. Egbetokun, 2012. "Cooperation behaviour and innovation performance in the Nigerian manufacturing industry," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-037, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    3. Bodas Freitas, Isabel Maria & Geuna, Aldo & Rossi, Federica, 2013. "Finding the right partners: Institutional and personal modes of governance of university–industry interactions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 50-62.
    4. Chiara Franco & Manuela Gussoni, 2014. "The role of firm and national level factors in fostering R&D cooperation: a cross country comparison," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 39(6), pages 945-976, December.
    5. Andræs Barge-Gil, 2013. "Open Strategies and Innovation Performance," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(7), pages 585-610, October.
    6. Biagia De Devitiis & Antonio Lopolito & Ornella Wanda Maietta & Roberta Sisto, 2009. "Adozione di Innovazioni e Variabili Relazionali nelle Imprese del Comparto Biologico," Quaderni DSEMS 18-2009, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Matematiche e Statistiche, Universita' di Foggia.
    7. Isabel Maria Bodas Freitas & Aldo Geuna & Federica Rossi, 2011. "University–Industry Interactions: The Unresolved Puzzle," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economic Complexity of Technological Change, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Geuna Aldo & Bodas Freitas Isabel Maria & Rossi Federica, 2010. "The Governance of University-Industry Knowledge Transfer:Why small firms do (not) develop institutional collaborations?," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201013, University of Turin.
    9. Goedhuys, Micheline & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2012. "Innovation strategies, process and product innovations and growth: Firm-level evidence from Brazil," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 516-529.
    10. Egbetokun, Abiodun A., 2015. "Interactive learning and firm-level capabilities in latecomer settings: The Nigerian manufacturing industry," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 231-241.
    11. Schøtt, Thomas & Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm, 2016. "Firms’ innovation benefiting from networking and institutional support: A global analysis of national and firm effects," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 1233-1246.
    12. Bodas Freitas Isabel Maria & Geuna Aldo & Rossi Federica, 2011. "Patterns of Collaborations between Regional Firms and Universities: Evidence from the Piedmont region in Italy," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201105, University of Turin.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    External knowledge sources; Innovation strategy; Formal cooperation; Multinomial Probit;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy

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