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Unveiling Hidden Districts: Assessing The Adoption Patterns Of Business Improvement Districts In California

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  • Leah Brooks

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Abstract

A wealth of anecdotal evidence suggests that, in the wake of tax revolts, cities have responded with a proliferation of special assessment districts which directly link taxes and their local public good beneficiaries. Despite this, there is no systematic evidence on the adoption patterns of these districts, likely because they are not surveyed by the U.S. Census of Governments. This paper begins to fill this gap by reporting the results of a survey on the adoption patterns of one class of special assessment districts, Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), in the state of California. A BID is formed when a majority of merchants or property owners in a commercial neighborhood vote in favor of a package of local taxes and expenditures; once passed, assessments are legally binding on all members of the commercial neighborhood. I find that roughly half of all larger cities in California have at least one BID; among the universe of cities in four Southern California counties, that figure falls to about one-fifth. On the demand side, theory and evidence suggest that BIDs should be adopted in heterogeneous cities to supplement local public goods to neighborhood taste. On the supply side, theory argues that BIDs solve the collective action problem arising in the provision of public goods when the number of group members is large. In particular, older commercial neighborhoods have many landowners who may have trouble coordinating the provision of local public goods, in contrast to the single mall developer who can write contracts to internalize externalities. Combining the survey data with demographic, institutional and political data, I find strong support for the supply-side story, and some evidence that the interaction of supply and demand explain BID adoption.

Suggested Citation

  • Leah Brooks, 2006. "Unveiling Hidden Districts: Assessing The Adoption Patterns Of Business Improvement Districts In California," Departmental Working Papers 2006-03, McGill University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcl:mclwop:2006-03
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    File URL: http://www.mcgill.ca/files/economics/Leah1.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:hrv:faseco:4553034 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Leah Brooks, 2006. "Volunteering To Be Taxed: Business Improvement Districts And The Extra-Governmental Provision Of Public Safety," Departmental Working Papers 2006-04, McGill University, Department of Economics.
    3. James M. Poterba, 1997. "Demographic structure and the political economy of public education," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 48-66.
    4. Epple, Dennis & Romano, Richard E, 1996. "Public Provision of Private Goods," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 57-84, February.
    5. Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1243-1284.
    6. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416-416.
    7. Leah Brooks, 2006. "Does Spatial Variation in Heterogeneity Matter? Assessing the Adoption Patterns of Business Improvement Districts," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 23(6), pages 1219-1234, November.
    8. Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2004. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 348-396, April.
    9. Eric D. Gould & B. Peter Pashigian & Canice J. Prendergast, 2005. "Contracts, Externalities, and Incentives in Shopping Malls," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 411-422, August.
    10. Helsley, Robert W. & Strange, William C., 1999. "Gated Communities and the Economic Geography of Crime," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 80-105, July.
    11. Nora Gordon & Brian Knight, 2006. "The Causes of Political Integration: An Application to School Districts," NBER Working Papers 12047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jonathan B. Justice & Chris Skelcher, 2009. "Analysing Democracy in Third-Party Government: Business Improvement Districts in the US and UK," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 738-753, September.
    2. Leah Brooks, 2006. "Volunteering To Be Taxed: Business Improvement Districts And The Extra-Governmental Provision Of Public Safety," Departmental Working Papers 2006-04, McGill University, Department of Economics.
    3. Cheung, Ron, 2008. "The interaction between public and private governments: An empirical analysis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 885-901, May.
    4. Meltzer, Rachel, 2012. "Understanding Business Improvement District formation: An analysis of neighborhoods and boundaries," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 66-78.
    5. Miller, Mark V., 2013. "Valuing local collective goods: the case of business improvement districts," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150635, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    6. Brooks, Leah, 2008. "Volunteering to be taxed: Business improvement districts and the extra-governmental provision of public safety," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 388-406, February.
    7. repec:spr:ecogov:v:19:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s10101-017-0198-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Brooks, Leah & Strange, William C., 2011. "The micro-empirics of collective action: The case of business improvement districts," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1358-1372.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • R5 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis
    • H7 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

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